大英 4 快速阅读文章翻译

Unit 1 Text 1

中国画

摘自苏大英语在线公众号

A) 中国画,中国的民族美术(national fine art),因其悠久的历史和与众不同(distinctive)的风格而著名(be celebrated for)。它通过在物象的表达(subject expression)中用不受透视(perspective)限制的笔触(brush strokes)来强调(emphasize)线条的运用(execution),并因此在世界美术之中开创出一种特殊的绘画体系。

B) 在封建时代(imperial times),国画和书法(calligraphy)是宫廷圈(court circles)内最高雅(appreciated)的艺术,并且几乎都(exclusively)由业余爱好者们(amateurs)——贵族(aristocrats)和士大夫(scholar-officials)创作——只有他们才有空闲(leisure)去完善自己的绘画技巧和必要的感知力(sensibility)。书法被认为是最高级也最纯粹(purest)的绘画形式。他们绘画的工具(implement)是由动物毛发制作的毛笔和由松烟(pine soot)及动物胶制成的黑色墨水。在古代,书写和绘画都是在丝绸上完成的。但是在公元1世纪纸发明之后,丝绸逐渐被这种新型便宜的材料取代。著名书法家所独创(original)的书法作品(calligraphers)在中国历史上(throughout China’s history)有极大的价值并且被用卷轴裱起来挂在墙上,绘画也是如此。

C) 传统方式的绘画所包含的技巧本质上(essentially)是和书法一样的,用蘸(dipped)着黑色或彩色墨水的毛笔完成,颜料(oils)是不用的。和书法一样(As with …),绘画使用的最受欢迎的材料是纸张和丝绸。完成的作品之后会被裱在卷轴上,以便能卷起来或挂起来。

D) 从唐朝(Tang dynasty)开始(公元618——907),绘画最主要的主体(the primary subject matter of painting)是风景,为人所知的是山水画。在这些风景之中,最主要的目的不是具体地(exactly)重现(produce)自然的面貌,而是抓住(grasp)其中的一种情感或者气氛以此来(so as to)抓住自然的“节律(rhythm)”在宋朝(公元960——1279),风景画出现了更加微妙(subtle)的表达,无限远(immeasurable)的距离通过模糊(blurred)的边界来体现(convey),山的轮廓(contour)消失在薄雾(mist)中,还有对于自然现象(phenomena)的印象派(impressionistic)处理绘画的重心是放在画的精神品质上还有画家揭示(reveal)内在的人与自然和谐的能力,正如感知(perceived)道家和佛教的宗旨。

E) 从13世纪开始,发展出了一种以简单事物为题材的传统——一树枝的水果,一丛花或者一两匹马。叙事(Narrative)画,比宋画使用范围更广且成分(composition)更为复杂的颜色,在明朝(公元1368——1644)是十分受欢迎的。

F) 在明朝期间出现了第一批有彩色木刻画插图(illustrate with)的书籍。随着彩色印刷技术的完善(perfected),关于绘画艺术的插图手册开始出版。《芥子园画传》,1679年第一次出版的五卷作品,直到现在(ever since)仍被用作画家以及学生的技术教科书。

G) 从新文化运动(the New Culture Movement)(20世纪初)起,中国画家开始采用(adopt)西方技巧。油画也是在此期间被传入(be introduced to)中国的。

段落匹配

  1. 在明代,叙事画比宋代的山水画使用更广泛的颜色。E
  2. 中国画,世界美术中的一个特殊的绘画系统,历史悠久(enjoy a long history)。A
  3. 书法和绘画创作(execute)中使用的最流行的材料是丝绸和纸张。C
  4. 直到20世纪初中国画家才开始采用西方技巧。G
  5. 展示人与自然和谐的能力是一幅优秀的画的条件(criteria)之一,尤其是在宋代。D
  6. 在封建时代,中国画很少由中国普通老百姓创作。B

按事件发生的顺序排序(1~4)

a. 关于绘画艺术的插图手册出版 (3)
b. 自然现象(phenomena)的印象派(impressionistic)处理 (2)
c. 采用西方技巧 (4)
d. 在山水画中可以抓住自然的“节律(rhythm)” (1)

Unit 1 Text 2

聚光灯(spotlight)下的佛罗伦萨(Florence)

在佛罗伦萨这个城市里,吃的、睡的、和呼吸的都是艺术,人类艺术天才的典范几乎矗立在每一条街上。数不胜数的博物馆和艺术商店等待着探索,意大利小镇佛罗伦萨是艺术爱好者的天堂。

在文艺复兴期间,佛罗伦萨就是艺术家的天堂。事实上,五百多年以前文艺复兴就在这里发迹了。在此之前,艺术只关注宗教主题。文艺复兴开始之后,艺术包含的领域更加广泛。艺术家们会为普通百姓作画,也会为希腊和罗马神话中的人物和历史场景作画。

米开朗琪罗是佛罗伦萨艺术家中的佼佼者。游客们在E) 阿卡得米亚博物馆(Academia museum)前排上数个小时的队,只为一睹令人印象深刻的“大卫”的风采。这一尊十四英尺高的雕像已经成为文艺复兴时期最完美的一尊人物塑像。“大卫”是米开朗琪罗简单而有力地雕刻人物这一能力的典范。

米开朗琪罗的大部分作品都被收藏于A) 维奇奥宫(Palazzo Vecchio)中。这座建筑在1299-1322年曾经是佛罗伦萨政府所在地。宫殿的房间充满了意大利艺术家们的画作和雕像。米开朗琪罗也来帮忙装饰外观。他在宫墙上雕刻头像,据说是他为了赢下一场赌局,背对墙壁反手雕刻了出了这个头像。

维奇奥宫不远处便是G) 佛罗伦萨主教堂(Cathedral Square)。这个漂亮的圆顶大教堂,或者叫“上帝之屋”,由当时最出名的设计师之一设计并花费近150年来建造。时至今日,游客依旧会被它的圆顶(教堂最大的(crowning)特点)而震撼。至今在佛罗伦萨没有任何一栋建筑的高度超过了它

短暂的步行穿过狭窄的街道,游客被带到了B) 乌菲齐美术馆(Pitti Palace)。这栋建筑修建于1560年且曾被用作机关大楼(“乌菲齐”在意大利语中是办公室的意思)。今天,她依旧被称赞为(boast)一个杰出的艺术品。游客在观光前应穿上舒适的鞋子,因为游览需要耗费数个小时。波提切利的《春宫》和《维纳斯的诞生》(Botticelli’s Primavera and Birth of Venus)等一些最著名的作品都被它收藏。

甚至是厌倦了艺术的游客依然不想错过C) 皮蒂宫(Pitti Palace)。曾经是佛罗伦萨强大的美策奇家族的家,这座宏伟的宫殿现在内藏三座博物馆。

许多充满无价之宝的房间中的金饰闪闪发光。为了呼吸新鲜空气,漫步于宫廷花园中的雕像和喷泉。它们是一些意大利最大的宫廷花园。除了满院的雕塑和喷泉,美策奇一家人在那里实验(experiment with)种植土豆和菠萝。

在令人振奋的皮蒂宫之后,右转游客便来到了佛罗伦萨最有名的室外景观之一——D) 老桥(蓓琪奥桥, Ponte Vecchio)。自1593年起,这座连通亚诺河的桥的两边排满了黄金珠宝店。那些对买一些现代珠宝感兴趣的人很乐意在此购物。这里工艺品的质量和价格都很高。

想要体验现代佛罗伦萨生活,来参加晚上的散步(promenade)。这种意大利生活的传统从晚上6点人们下班开始。人们漫步(stroll down)于佛罗伦萨中心街道做着最后的消费或与朋友畅聊。一定要从当地最古老的、最棒的冰淇淋的发源地 F) Perche Noi 前走过。

佛罗伦萨提供了世人许多绝佳的艺术宝藏。它们有些矗立在花园和广场上,有些则陈列在华丽的宫墙上,还有些宝藏就是那些宫殿本身。对艺术爱好者而言,佛罗伦萨确实是天堂。

M - 中心思想 B - 太宽泛 N - 太窄

  1. 米开朗琪罗是佛罗伦萨最棒的艺术家。N
  2. 佛罗伦萨是一个极好的地点。B
  3. 佛罗伦萨是一个艺术爱好者的天堂。M

Unit 1 Text 3

上帝之声

A) 约翰·艾略特·加德纳(John Eliot Gardiner)在多塞特(Dorset)的自家农场长大,他每天都在楼梯上遇见约翰·塞巴斯蒂安·巴赫(John Sebastian Bach)。一次特殊的机会,一个来自西里西亚的难民给了嘉丁纳一家一幅作曲家的画像,让他们在第二次世界大战期间保证它的安全。这幅画由Elias Gottlob Haussmann于1748年创作,也就是巴赫去世前几年。在这位伟大的人物的一生中,这幅画是为数不多的(tiny: 很少的, handful: 少数)几幅经过鉴定的(authenticated)画作之一。年轻时的托恩·艾略特(Tohn Eliot)觉得这有点可怕,但是他还是对这位作曲家终生着迷。现在,约翰爵士(Sir John),后来已经成为,正在一本新书中阐述(present)他对食神和他的音乐的感想(reflection)。

B) 称为(bill as)约翰·塞巴斯蒂安·巴赫(John Sebastian Bach)的半身雕塑像(portrait),它也不可避免的是约翰·艾略特·加德纳(John Eliot Gardiner)的半身雕塑像。加德纳后来成为著名的指挥家,也是20世纪70年代开始的“早期音乐”运动的领军人物之一。作为一名表演者和音乐鉴赏家,约翰爵士从内心感受了很多巴赫的音乐, 它比大多数人能更好地传达巴赫本人站在他的音乐家面前的感受,以及当一个作曲家在创作音乐时脑海中在想什么。

C) 尤其是(more than anything else),他着迷于(be captivated by)巴赫的声乐(vocal)作品:大合唱,赞美诗,激情和群众。2000年是巴赫逝世250周年纪念日,他带着他的蒙特威尔第唱诗班和英国巴洛克独奏家 (Monteverdi Choir and English Baroque Soloist) 进行了一次“巴赫大合唱朝圣(Bach Cantata Pilgrimage)”。在一年的时间里,他们在欧洲和美洲的一些教堂里演奏了巴赫现存的200首神圣大合唱中的198首。

D) 这本书不是传统意义上的传记——传统意义上的传记已经有很多了,其中一些非常优秀——而是试图通过他的音乐来揭示他。令人惊讶的是,人们对巴赫的个人生活知之甚少。他饱经忧患(be acquainted with grief)。他在9岁时成为孤儿(Orphaned),在13年的婚姻后失去了第一任妻子玛丽亚·芭芭拉(Maria Barbara)。他与妻子所生的七个孩子中,有四个比他先死了。他的第二任妻子安娜·玛格达莱娜(Anna Magdalena)又为他生了13个孩子,但只有6个活到了成年。

E) 在职业方面,巴赫的生活似乎也很艰难。他出生在一个著名的音乐家家庭,找到第一份工作相对容易。但职业机会有限,他必须在一个法院任命的职位和教堂管风琴手和音乐家之间选择。每一个都有其缺点。有一段时间,巴赫在两者中犹豫不决(因试图辞去魏玛法院的工作而被短暂监禁是更好的选择),但在1723年,他接受了康托尔的位置,在圣托马斯的路德教会(称作托马斯教堂 Thomaskirche,在莱比锡)负责音乐,直到他1750年去世。

F) 有很多挫折。工资不高;这座城市没有足够的资金为他提供一流的(first-rate)歌唱家和演奏家,这是他复杂的音乐所需要的;人们期望他做很多教学工作;当他试图引进任何过于冒险的东西时,委员会(council)都紧紧地盯着他(breath down his neck);还有很多音乐上的政治。

G) 但在某种意义上,他是对的。正如他向一位早期雇主解释的那样,他的最终(ultimate)目标是“为了荣耀上帝,创作一曲规范有序的教堂音乐”。作为一个虔诚的新教(Protestant)徒和路德的崇拜者,巴赫有机会做很多他最想做的事情:写出辉煌的(glorious)教堂音乐。他刚到托马斯教堂,就开始了一轮(a bout of)热烈兴奋的(furious)大合唱作曲。在三年的大部分时间里,他都在为每周日的教堂礼拜制作一段新的音乐——大约20分钟的音乐。在此期间,他还为每个复活节创作了长篇的《激情 (Passions)》,并创作了其他各种音乐。这是一个不可持续的(unsustainable)创意爆发,但留下了持久的遗产。

H) 约翰爵士从学术的角度分析了许多大合唱。他还解释了巴赫每一个伟大的《激情》和崇高的《B小调拉丁弥撒 (Latin Mass in B minor)》的组成。他展示了在选择文字时花了多少心思,以及作品的质量是如何始终如一地高。这是当时真正的“新音乐”,与众不同(like no one else’s)的异常复杂和大胆。它对表演者和听众都提出了很高的要求。即使是阅读它也需要集中注意力。你要么必须非常了解这首音乐,要么在阅读文本时听它来理解它。约翰爵士的书不是给初学者看的,但很值得。

I) 那么巴赫这个人呢?试图在这个固执己见(opinionated)、脾气暴躁(crabby )、经常与他人相反的工作狂(workaholic)的个人品质和他音乐的奇迹(marvel)之间建立直接的联系可能没有多大意义。当被问及他在音乐上成功的秘诀时,他故意(deliberately)含糊其辞(opaque):“我不得不(be obliged to)勤勉(industrious);谁也同样勤劳,谁就会同样成功。”

J) 约翰爵士通过仔细检查(scrutinizing)作品得出了更好的答案。他发现了大量迄今为止(hitherto)没出现过的发明和才智(ingenuity)。但最后,他发现这归结为(come down to)一种信仰的行为。其他作曲家,包括蒙特威尔第,贝多芬和莫扎特(Monteverdi, Beethoven and Mozart),都在不同方面取得了伟大的成就,“但巴赫……他以人类的形式向我们传达了上帝之声。”

段落匹配

  1. 巴赫经历了许多人生的沧桑,对悲伤并不陌生。D
  2. 正是在托马斯教堂,巴赫全身心投入了音乐创作,给我们留下了宝贵的艺术遗产。G
  3. 嘉丁纳夫妇有一幅约翰·塞巴斯蒂安·巴赫的肖像,是一位难民送给他们的。A
  4. 虽然巴赫找到一份与音乐有关的工作并不难,但他所从事的工作提供了有限的职业机会。E
  5. 约翰爵士关于巴赫的书对初学者来说可能要求很高,但值得花时间。H
  6. 2000年,约翰·艾略特·加德纳(John Eliot Gardiner)和他的同伴们演奏了巴赫大部分现存的大合唱。C
  7. 约翰·艾略特·加德纳从内心深处理解巴赫的音乐,比大多数人都更能表达作曲家巴赫想要表达的音乐。B

F表示事实,O表示观点

  1. 70岁的约翰·艾略特·加德纳写了一本关于约翰·塞巴斯蒂安·巴赫的书,反思了他的音乐。F
  2. 这位固执己见、脾气暴躁、经常与他人对立的工作狂的个人品质与他的音乐成就之间的直接联系可能没有多大意义。O
  3. 2000年是巴赫逝世250周年。F

Unit 1 Text 4

The British Museum. 大英博物馆

The British Museum is the biggest in the world; inside, you feel smaller than usual. Notices tell you about a hundred different things to see: clocks which have been telling the time for six hundred years, Roman money, some of the earliest books in the world,Shakespeare’s own writing…
大英博物馆是世界上最大的博物馆;在里面,你会觉得自己比平时更渺小。通告告诉你大约有100种不同的东西值得一看:已经有600年历史的时钟、罗马货币、世界上一些最早的书籍、莎士比亚自己的作品……

The story of the British Museum goes back three hundred years to one unusual man: Sir Hans Sloane, doctor to King George II. The doctor couldn’t stop collecting – books, drawings, money, animals, flowers; things from all over the world. The doctor wanted everything to stay together when he died, so that people could come and look at it. The British Museum started to grow when King George II gave his library. The presenting has never stopped.
大英博物馆的故事可以追溯到(go back to)300年前一个不寻常的人:汉斯·斯隆爵士,乔治二世的医生。医生不停地收集——书籍、图画、钱币、动物、花卉…来自世界各地的东西。医生希望在他死后,所有的东西都能保存在一起,这样人们就能来看看。大英博物馆在乔治二世国王捐赠图书馆后开始发展。捐赠(present)从未停止过。

The first difficulty was finding a home. One idea was Buckingham Palace, but the Palace wasn’t big enough. Finally people found a larger building for the Museum in the middle of London. To pay for it, they bought tickets at £3 each.
第一个困难是找到一个家。一个想法是建造白金汉宫,但是这座宫殿不够大。最后,人们在伦敦市中心找到了一座更大的博物馆。为了买下它,参观者需要以每张3英镑的价格买票。

The British Museum opened in 1759, six years after Sir Hans Sloane died. The doctor wanted people “to enter freely”. But the Museum was afraid of letting everybody in. Assistants with guns stood at the doors. Only “gentlemen” could visit the Museum then and they had to buy tickets. They also had to make two or three journeys to the Museum to ask for the tickets, and then they had to wait weeks or months before it came. Ladies could only come in pairs, and children were forbidden! And as the Museum was only open three days a week and only ten people could enter in an hour, there wasn’t much time to see things. Visitors had to run through the rooms!
大英博物馆于1759年开放,也就是汉斯·斯隆爵士去世六年后。医生希望人们“自由进入”,但是博物馆不敢让所有人都进去。拿着枪的助理站在门口,只有“绅士”才能参观博物馆,而且他们必须买票。他们还不得不两三次去博物馆索要门票,然后还要等上几周或几个月才能拿到门票。女士们只能成对地进来,孩子们是禁止进来的!由于博物馆每周只开放三天,而且一个小时内只能进10个人,所以没多少时间看东西。来访者不得不在房间里跑来跑去(run through)!

By about 1800, things began to get better. Wonderful statues, three thousand years old, arrived from Egypt. There were kings with animals’ heads. There were strange lions with wings and men’s faces. A Scotsman, Lord Elgin, brought back some of the oldest and most beautiful Greek sculptures in the world – girls with vase, horses and riders. When he found them, they had been lying on the ground, broken and forgotten. Lord Elgin saved all the pieces he could get, spending thousands of pounds of his own money. During the Second World War, the Museum hid the Elgin sculptures in London’s underground railway to keep them safe.
到了大约1800年,情况开始好转。三千年前的奇妙雕像从埃及(Egypt)运来。有长着动物脑袋的国王,有长着翅膀和人的脸的奇怪的狮子。苏格兰人埃尔金勋爵带回了一些世界上最古老、最美丽的希腊雕塑(sculptures)——有着女孩、马匹和骑手的花瓶。当他找到它们时,它们躺在地上,破损不堪,被人遗忘了。埃尔金勋爵把所有能得到的东西都存了起来,花了自己数千英镑。在第二次世界大战期间,博物馆把埃尔金的雕塑藏在伦敦的地铁里,以确保它们的安全。

More and more people wanted to visit the Museum, George IV gave all his books, too– though the truth was that he secretly sold them to the Museum for £180,000! The King’s Library is the most beautiful of the new museum buildings.
越来越多的人想参观博物馆,乔治四世也捐出了他所有的书——尽管事实是他秘密地以18万英镑的价格将它们卖给了博物馆!国王图书馆是新博物馆建筑中最漂亮的。

New books as well as old ones arrived at the Museum a hundred years ago, and more people came to read them. The old reading rooms were crowded. The air was bad and readers got terrible headaches. The librarian, Panizzi, like Sloane, wanted poor students, as well as rich men, to be able to learn. He got a free copy of every new book for the British Museum. Soon, there were three rows of books on every shelf and hundreds of books on the floor. Something had to happen. So Panizzi himself designed the famous round Reading Room, with a beautiful high roof and forty kilometers of bookshelves. Some of the equipment was unusual. Cool air came up through small holes in the tables. Hot air in tubes underneath the floor kept readers’ feet warm. When the new Reading Room opened, there was a party with drinks and a large breakfast on the desks. Everybody said that the new Reading Room was wonderful. Since then, many famous men have written and studied there. And the Library is growing faster and faster: there are four kilometers of new shelves every year!
一百年前,新书和旧书都来到了博物馆,越来越多的人来阅读它们。旧阅览室里挤满了人。空气很糟糕,看书的人头疼得厉害。和斯隆一样,图书管理员(librarian)潘尼齐希望穷人和富人都能学习。他为大英博物馆的每一本书都免费赠送了一本复制版。很快,每个书架上都有三排书,地板上有几百本书。一定会有事发生的。因此,潘尼齐亲自设计了著名的圆形阅览室,有一个美丽的高屋顶(roof)和40公里长的书架。有些设备很不寻常。冷空气从桌子上的小洞里飘出来,地板下面(underneath)管子里的热空气让读者的脚保持温暖。当新的阅览室开放时,有一个聚会,饮料和桌子上有一大堆早餐。大家都说新阅览室很好。从那时起,许多名人都在那里写作和学习。图书馆发展得越来越快:每年都有4公里的新书架!

A lot of the Museum’s work now is also scientific. New machines can find out how old things are and how to mend them and keep them for the future. And Sir Hans Sloane would be happy to see what the British Museum does for its visitors today. It is open every day of the year, except for three holidays. Entrance is free. There are lots of special exhibitions and every day there are different films and talks, some of them for children. Small machines tell you about the Museum as you walk round it, you can look and listen at the same time. So if you are one of the British Museum’s two million visitors this year, you have a lot to look forward to. Don’t try to see it all too quickly. There is a life-time of looking in the British Museum.
博物馆现在的许多工作也是科学的。新的机器可以知道东西有多旧,如何修理它们,并为将来保留它们。汉斯·斯隆爵士会很高兴看到大英博物馆今天为它的游客做了什么。除了三个假期外,全年每天都开放。进入是免费的。那里有很多特别的展览,每天都有不同的电影和访谈,其中一些是给孩子们的。当你在博物馆周围走动时,小型机器会向你介绍博物馆,你可以同时看和听。所以,如果你是今年大英博物馆200万游客中的一员,你会有很多期待。不要试图很快就把它们都看完,大英博物馆的展品值得一生去欣赏。

填空:

  1. 当大英博物馆首次开放时,每位游客都应该以3英镑的价格购买一张门票来支付建筑费用。 3 pounds
  2. 在第二次世界大战期间,博物馆把埃尔金的雕塑藏在伦敦的地铁里,以确保它们的安全。 underground railway
  3. 著名的圆形阅览室是由大英博物馆的图书管理员潘尼齐设计的。 librarian
  4. 大英博物馆现在每天开放,除了3个节假日three holidays
  5. 据估计,今年参观大英博物馆的游客人数将达到200万 two million

判断推断是否正确 C - 正确 F - 错误.

  1. 国王乔治二世的医生汉斯·斯隆爵士死于1753年。C
  2. 自从博物馆开放以来,它就一直是孩子们参观的好地方。F
  3. 乔治四世国王把他所有的书都赠送给了博物馆。F

Unit 1 Text 5

音乐电影(Musical Film)

A musical film belongs to a film genre that features songs, sung by the actors, interwoven into the narrative. The songs are usually used to advance the plot or develop the film’s characters. A sub-genre of the musical is the musical comedy, which includes a strong element of humour as well as the usual music, dancing and storyline.
音乐电影是一种电影类型(genre),其特点是由演员演唱的歌曲与叙事(narrative)交织(interwoven)在一起。这些歌曲通常用于推进(advance)情节或发展电影中的人物。音乐喜剧音乐剧(musical)的一个分支(sub-genre),它包括了强大的幽默元素以及通常的音乐、舞蹈和故事情节(storyline)

The musical is responsible for the transition from silent film to sound film in the development of the motion picture. The popularity of movies grew rapidly during the golden days of the silent film era, but the concept of “talking pictures” was considered a risky investment by the major Hollywood studios, until the Warner Bros. studio took the leap and produced The Jazz Singer, starring Al Jolson. Jolson’s song “My Mammy” in the picture forever changed the medium of film, and it jolted(震动) Hollywood into the era of sound. As Hollywood adapted to sound films, musicals were an important part of Hollywood’s movie output, ranking alongside action movies (Westerns), dramas, and comedies.
在电影(motion picture)的发展过程中,音乐剧是由无声电影向有声电影过渡(transition)的原因(be responsible for)。电影在无声电影时代的黄金时期迅速流行起来,但“有声电影(talking pictures)”的概念被好莱坞各大电影公司认为是一项风险投资,直到华纳兄弟电影公司迈出一大步(take the leap),制作了由艾尔·乔尔森主演(star)的《爵士歌手》。影片(picture)中乔尔森的歌曲《我的妈妈》永远地改变了电影的媒介(medium),并且它将好莱坞带入了有声时代。随着好莱坞对有声电影的改编(adapt),音乐剧成为好莱坞电影输出的重要组成部分,与动作片(西部片)、戏剧和喜剧并列(rank alongside)。

Musical stars such as Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers were among the most popular and highly respected personalities in Hollywood. Many dramatic actors gladly participated in musicals as a way to break away from their typical typecast roles. For instance, James Cagney had originally risen to fame on the stage as a singer and dancer, and he was highly talented; but his repeated casting in “tough guy” roles and gangster movies gave him few chances to display these talents. Cagney’s Oscar-winning role in Yankee Doodle Dandy allowed him to sing and dance, and he considered it to be one of his finest moments.
弗雷德·阿斯泰尔和金格·罗杰斯等音乐明星是好莱坞最受欢迎和最受尊敬的人物(personalities)。许多戏剧演员乐于参与音乐剧,以此来摆脱他们经典的角色定型(typecast)。例如,詹姆斯·卡格尼最初以歌手和舞者的身份在舞台上成名,他才华横溢;但他反复出演(cast)“硬汉(tough guy)”角色和黑帮(gangster, 歹徒、恶棍)电影,很少有机会展示自己的才华。卡格尼在《胜利之歌》( Yankee Doodle Dandy )中饰演的获得奥斯卡奖的角色允许他唱歌和跳舞,他认为这是他最辉煌的时刻之一。

Many comedies (and a few dramas) included their own musical numbers. The Marx Brothers’ movies included a musical number in nearly every film, allowing the Marx Brothers themselves to highlight their own musical talents.
许多喜剧(和一些戏剧)都有自己的音乐剧(musical number)。马克思兄弟的电影中几乎每一部电影都有一个音乐剧,这使得马克思兄弟能够突出(highlight)他们自己的音乐天赋。

The musical in film was a natural development from the stage musical. Typically the biggest difference between the movie musical and the musical theater is the use of lavish background scenery which would be impractical in a theater. Many musical films, e.g. Oklahoma! and The Sound of Music, are straight forward adaptations or restagings of successful stage productions. Others, e.g. Moulin Rouge!, were specifically written for the screen, and some, such as Singin’ in the Rain, have made a reverse transition from their original screen version to a successful stage format at a much later date.
电影中的音乐剧是舞台音乐剧的自然发展。一般来说,音乐电影和剧院中的音乐剧之间最大的区别就是使用了奢华(lavish)的背景布景(scenery),这在剧院里是不现实的(impractical)。许多音乐电影,例如《俄克拉何马州》和《音乐之声》,都是成功舞台剧的直接改编或重新上演(restaging)。很久以后(at a much later date),其他的例如《红磨坊》是专为银幕而写的,《雨中曲》( Singin’ in the Rain )则从最初的银幕版本向后来成功的舞台版本进行了反向转换

The trend in modern film-making is not to make a “musical” as such, but to use a lot of background music by popular rock or pop bands in the hopes of selling the soundtrack album to fans. There are exceptions to this rule, and films about actors, dancers or singers have been made as successful modern-style musicals, with the music as an intrinsic part of the storyline. The other exception to the rule is children’s animated movies. These almost always include traditional musical numbers, and some of them, such as Beauty and the Beast, have later become full live stage productions.
现代电影制作的趋势不是制作一部“音乐剧”,而是使用大量流行摇滚或流行乐队作为背景音乐,希望能把原声专辑(soundtrack album)卖给粉丝。这一规则也有例外,关于演员、舞者或歌手的电影也被制作成成功的现代风格音乐剧,音乐成为故事情节中不可或缺(intrinsic, 固有的)的一部分。规则的另一个例外是儿童动画电影。这些几乎总是包括传统的音乐剧,其中一些,如《美女和野兽》,后来成为完整的现场舞台演出。

单项选择

  1. 音乐电影________。B
    A)是一种无声电影
    B)是一个比音乐喜剧更广泛的类别
    C)是一种使用大量背景音乐的电影类型
    D)属于西方人
  2. 为什么有些演员很乐意在音乐电影中扮演一个角色? A
    A)音乐电影为他们提供了一个改变重复表演相同部分的机会。
    B)音乐电影在当时是成功的保证。
    C)他们认为音乐电影可能帮助他们赢得奥斯卡奖。
    D)音乐电影是好莱坞电影制作的重要组成部分。
  3. 下面哪个是先在银幕上播放,之后才在舞台上表演? D
    A)《俄克拉何马州》( Oklahoma!
    B)《音乐之声》( The Sound of Music
    C)《红磨坊》( Moulin Rouge!
    D)《雨中曲》( Singin’ in the Rain
  4. 下列哪项不是音乐电影的基本元素? A
    A)幽默
    B)音乐
    C)跳舞
    D)的故事情节
  5. 下列哪项是不正确的? D
    A)詹姆斯·卡格尼的才能在《胜利之歌》( Yankee Doodle Dandy )中得到了最好的展示。
    B)《音乐之声》最初是一部舞台音乐剧。
    C)一开始,投资有声电影被认为是一种风险。
    D)在音乐电影中,歌曲是由演员演唱的,因为演员在唱歌方面有特殊的才能。

C - 接近, O - 相反, D - 不同

  1. Jolson’s song “My Mammy” in the picture forever changed the medium of film, and it jolted(震动) Hollywood into the era of sound.
    影片(picture)中乔尔森的歌曲《我的妈妈》永远地改变了电影的媒介(medium),并且它将好莱坞带入了有声时代。
    C) a. made … move suddenly 使…突然移动
    O) b. prevented … from moving 阻止…移动
    D) c. laughed 笑了
  2. Typically the biggest difference between the musical movie and the musical theater is the use of lavish background scenery which would be impractical in a theater.
    一般来说,音乐电影和剧院中的音乐剧之间最大的区别就是使用了奢华(lavish)的背景布景(scenery),这在剧院里是不现实的(impractical)。
    O) a. sparing 节俭
    D) b. special 特殊的
    C) c. extravagant 奢侈的

Unit 2 Text 1

睡眠行为

摘自苏大英语在线公众号,已经自己翻译了一遍,在这里吐槽一下原作者的翻译是真的…

昨晚你睡得好吗?会不会醒来的时候会觉得疲乏(fatigued)慵懒(sluggish)甚至怀疑自己根本没有入睡?睡个好觉不仅仅是爬上床,闭上你的眼睛。了解你自己的睡眠行为并且为安然入睡(a sound sleep)做好准备可以确保你每天晚上睡个好觉。

华盛顿大学护理学院生物行为护理和健康系统睡眠研究员、副教授卡罗·兰蒂斯博士解释道:“睡眠是一种行为,就像所有的行为,人与人之间的差异很大。最大的区别在于(occur in)睡眠时间(the timing of sleep)和睡眠总量(the amount of sleep),这些因素(factor)对于决定你是否能醒来时觉得精力充沛(rested)是最重要的。”

研究表明,人们会在昼夜周期中的不同时间会睡得更好。例如,有些人早睡早起会工作(function, vi.)得更好( 即更适合早睡早起,译注 )而有些人晚睡晚起会感到更精力充沛( 即更适合晚睡晚起,译注。兰蒂斯指出,“很多人会不会注意他们的睡眠时间,然而延迟或者改变睡眠时间会对你醒来时的感觉有重大影响(have a major impact on)。”

成年人平均每晚需要的睡眠总量也有差异。有些人睡六个小时就够了,然而有些人会需要长达(up to)每晚九个小时。兰蒂斯指出,那些遵循有规律的睡眠计划的人更易于(be apt to)在较短的时间内(on fewer hours)工作(function, vi.)得更好。但她补充道,大多数成年人每晚至少需要六个小时的睡眠。

兰斯蒂强调:“一个人的睡眠模式不是一成不变的(be set in concrete,直译为“被安置在混凝土中”,意译为一成不变的,译注。逐渐地改变睡眠时间会帮助改变睡眠模式。一个需要早上早起工作的“夜猫子(evening people)”可以尝试着每隔几天提前三十分钟睡觉。几个星期后,这种缓慢的调整能够帮助“重置”(身体)内部的生物钟。

除了保持一个有规律的睡眠计划,兰蒂斯给出以下几个养成良好的睡眠保健卫生(hygiene)的小贴士:

  • 避免刺激(stimulants),包括傍晚或晚上吸烟,食用/饮用含咖啡因的饮料、食物如巧克力)。
  • 避免在摄入酒精。这会产生反弹(rebounding)效果:导致(仅)睡几个小时就醒来并且打乱睡眠模式。
  • 在睡觉的至少两小时前结束锻炼。运动会升高体温,使人兴奋(arousing),更难入睡。
  • 不要在温暖的环境里入睡。体温降低对开始(onset, n.)深度睡眠十分重要。在恒温房间或使用电热毯的人也许不会睡得那么舒适。
  • 如果有机会,补觉(catch up on missed sleep)。繁忙的工作安排或周末活动经常会使我们获得和每晚一样的睡眠时间变得困难。为了减少睡眠不足(sleep debt, debt: 债务 ),试着在白天下午四点前小憩(nap)半小时或在周末睡个懒觉(当你有机会的时候)。
  • 兰蒂斯指出:“人们可以通过十五分钟至半个小时的小憩来恢复精力,而不是(instead of)在工作间隙喝一杯咖啡。从长期来看(in the long run),你将感觉更好。”

判断对错

  1. 每个人都需要8小时睡眠来感到更精力充沛。F
  2. 遵循有规律的睡眠计划将帮助你获得更好的休息。T
  3. 一个凉爽的房间比一个炎热的房间对于舒适的睡眠更好。T
  4. 睡觉前喝东西可以帮助放松、促进睡眠。F
  5. 睡前一杯热巧克力可以帮助你入睡。F
  6. 在白天下午五点前的半个小时的小憩是一个建议的方式来补觉。F
  7. 一个“夜猫子”可以通过比平常早上床睡觉来逐渐地改变他的睡眠模式。T

判断推论是否合理:C——正确,F——错误

  1. 为了得到最好的休息,你应该早睡早起。F
  2. 为了不让自己犯困,你可以做一些运动。C
  3. 如果某物是 “set in concrete” 的,意思是它可以被轻易地改变。F

Unit 2 Text 2

我们的梦意味着什么

点击下载全文翻译

Unit 2 Text 3

睡眠的缺乏影响着孩子们的智力

摘自苏大英语在线公众号

研究显示(reveal),多出一个小时的睡眠时间对于一个机智的(alert)和一个反应有点慢的(sluggish)孩子来说出现了差别。

特拉维夫大学心理学教授萨德哈说:“在现实生活中,在家长和孩子之间的日常争论(struggle)中总是围绕着这些小事(narrow margins):比如多一个小时,额外的电视节目等。”他还说,睡得太少可能会导致在校的表现不佳和很多事故的发生。

为了调查(investigate)多或者少(subtracting)一个小时的睡眠对于孩子们的影响,萨德哈在一周之内的五天对77个四年级和六年级的学生调整了睡眠时间,这些学生都很健康并且没有什么特殊的社交活动或是校园活动。

萨德哈和他的同事们发现多一个小时的睡眠会有很大的不同。萨德哈在三月/四月出版的《儿童发展杂志》上报道,那些睡得时间久的孩子们,即使他们会在夜里醒来的更频繁(frequently),但是他们在反应(reaction)测试中得到了更高的分数(scored higher)。

萨德哈说:“当孩子们睡的时间久了一点他们的睡眠质量(quality)就有一点受损(impaired)——睡眠更碎片化,他们醒来地更频繁了——但是除了(in spite of)这个他们的表现更好了,因为额外的睡眠是比睡眠质量的受损(reduction)更有意义的(significant)。”

先前的睡眠缺乏(deprivation)研究注重于极端的、短期的(short-term periods)、不充分的(inadequate)睡眠,而且多半是针对成人的,他说,增加一些新的发现是很重要的,因为其他的研究已经显示儿童比几十年前的睡得更少了。这个和以前的研究都不能肯定的是对于孩子来说睡眠缺乏是否影响到成年时期(adulthood)的发育,即使一些可能的影响已经被假定(hypothesize)了,他说。

“一些研究表明有睡眠障碍(sleep-disturbed)的婴幼儿(infants)当他们长大后很可能会发展为注意力缺陷多动障碍attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, A. D. H. D.)”,萨德哈说。

在早期的研究中,萨德哈的团队发现四年级的孩子平均睡眠时间为8.2个小时,而六年级的为7.7个小时。

贝塞斯达国家睡眠障碍研究中心主任卡尔·杭特说道,先前的研究已经显示了小学生一晚经常(on a regular basis)需要至少九个小时的睡眠。他说,初中生和高中生需要的时间少一点,增长的睡眠不充足(insufficient)的后果(consequence)可能会很严重。

杭特说:“一个疲惫的孩子就是事故等待着在发生。并且随着孩子们长大,玩具变得更大,危险也更大。”杭特哈同时指出了过少的睡眠可能会导致(result in)学习和记忆的问题和长期的在学校的表现中的影响

杭特对于萨德哈的研究说,“这是一个关于我们已经了解到的东西的重要扩展,对于好的健康来说,增加睡眠和营养、锻炼一样重要。”为了将其转化为应用,杭特说,父母应该确保知道他们孩子真的去睡觉了以及他们的屋子是有益于(conducive)睡眠而不是玩耍的

一致的(consistent)就寝时间和在傍晚直到当他们去睡觉限制儿童的咖啡因摄入也可以提高儿童的睡眠质量,杭特说。

填空(一个单词)

  1. 为了调查一个小时的睡眠对于孩子们的作用,萨德哈在五天内对77个健康的(healthy)学生调整了睡眠时间.
  2. 对于孩子来说睡眠缺乏是否影响到成年时期的发育是不确定的,但是有人认为他们成年后可能会导致注意力缺陷多动障碍(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder)。
  3. 萨德哈的研究证明了,对于好的健康来说,增加睡眠和营养(nutrition) 、锻炼一样重要。
  4. 根据杭特,父母有责任安排有助于(conductive)睡眠的房间。

根据文章,我们可以对睡眠了解到什么?选择五项答案 CDEFH

A) 十岁的儿童睡得更多更少
B) 儿童时期睡眠较少影响到成年时期的发育。更多
C) 小学的孩子比中学和高中的孩子需要更多的睡眠。
D) 睡眠充足的孩子发生事故的风险较低。
E) 父母应该确保他们的孩子在睡觉前吃正确的东西。
F) 额外的睡眠可以提高孩子们在学校的表现。
G) 睡眠中断的婴幼儿长大后会变得多动。睡眠障碍
H) 睡得越久的孩子晚上醒来得越频繁。

Unit 2 Text 4

睡个好觉(A Good Night’s Sleep)

1 There’s nothing quite like the refreshment of a good night’s sleep; conversely there is much misery which comes from a restless night. The whole of the next day can be disturbed by a bad night, as the poor sleepless one drags himself or herself through the day, snapping at friends and colleagues alike. Hopefully the problem can be solved quickly so the next night is not so bad, because bad sleeping habits may lead to serious problems.
1 没有什么能像一个好觉一样使人精神爽快;相反,一个不眠之夜会带来很多痛苦(misery)。一个糟糕的夜晚可能会影响整个第二天,因为可怜的失眠者会拖着自己度过这一天,对朋友和同事发火(snap at)。希望这个问题能很快解决,这样第二天晚上就不会那么糟糕了,因为不良的睡眠习惯可能会导致严重的问题。

2 Why do we have bad nights? In some cases it is because of some traumatic event or emotional upset which deprives us of sleep. A good example would be if we are waiting for someone who is late coming home, or we are anticipating a serious examination, or are worried about some event which will occur the next day. The event may equally be something we are looking forward to, like a party or a celebration, so we cannot get to sleep for thinking about it. These bad nights are limited by the temporary nature of the events which cause them.
2 为什么我们会有糟糕的夜晚?在某些情况下,是由于一些创伤(traumatic: (心理)创伤的;(生理)外伤的)事件或情绪上的不安剥夺了我们的睡眠。一个很好的例子是,如果我们在等待很晚回家的人,或者我们正在准备一个庄重的考试,或者担心第二天会发生的一些事情。同样,事件也可能是我们期待的东西,比如聚会或庆典,所以我们想着这些事而不能睡觉。这些糟糕的夜晚受限于导致它们的事件的暂时性

3 Anxiety is a great thief of sleep, and may settle into a pattern where the sufferer gets to bed and to sleep only to awaken in the early hours of the morning. This sort of chronic pattern may go on for a long time, and is a serious health issue. Opinions differ on the best way to handle this sort of sleep deprivation: the early morning is probably no time to try to resolve the issue which is causing the concern. The immediate solution at 2 a.m. may be to get up and move around a little and then return to bed, ready to sleep. This method is advocated by people who have running nightmares about their problems if they just try to lie in bed and go back to sleep.
3 焦虑是睡眠的小偷,并且可能会习惯于一种患者上床睡觉后只在早晨很早的时候就醒来的模式。这种慢性(chronic)模式可能会持续很长时间,是一个严重的健康问题。关于如何处理这种睡眠剥夺(deprivation)的最佳方法,人们意见不一:清晨可能不是解决这个引起了关注的问题的时间。在凌晨2点,立刻的解决办法可能是起床,稍微活动活动,然后回到床上,准备睡觉。这种方法是由那些如果只是试图躺在床上睡觉就做噩梦的人提倡的(advocated),。

4 People may lose sleep because they are in greater or lesser degrees of pain. Here the problem becomes medical, and is beyond the scope of this article. Suffice it to say that a whole array of medicine is out there, and should be administered by experts.
4 人们可能会因为疼痛的程度而失眠。在这里,问题变成了医学问题,超出了本文的范围。我只想说(Suffice it to say that: 只要说…就够了),有各种各样的药物,并且这些药物应该由专家来管理(administered)。

5 People may find it hard to sleep because they are too hot or too cold. In hot, airless conditions even a standard fan will help immensely, and if there is a ceiling fan it should be set to move the air gently. Many people prefer to sleep with a window open to allow plenty of fresh air into the room, although in some places the fresh air may be accompanied by noise and mosquitoes.
5 人们可能因为太热或太冷而难以入睡。在炎热、没有空气的条件下,即使是一个标准的风扇也会有很大的帮助,如果有一个吊扇(ceiling fan),它应该设定为轻柔地转动。许多人喜欢开着窗户睡觉,以便让大量的新鲜空气进入房间,尽管在一些地方,新鲜空气可能伴随着噪音和蚊子(mosquitoes)。

6 The topic of bedding is often neglected. Bed clothes should be light and clean, and in summer they should be minimal. In winter people can resort to heavier blankets or the self-indulgence(自我放纵) of electric blankets, best used to heat the bed before anyone gets into it and then turned off. It is quite easy to over-estimate the number of blankets needed in winter, and many people make themselves too hot, kick the bedclothes off, and then wake up cold.
6 床上用品的话题经常被忽视。床上衣物应该轻便、干净,在夏天应该最少。在冬天,人们可以使用更厚的毛毯或将自己沉醉于电热毯中,电热毯最好是在人们上床之前加热,然后关掉。人们很容易高估冬天所需要的毯子的数量,许多人把自己弄得太热,把被褥踢掉,然后醒来时却很冷。

7 Finally, one must consider the part habit plays in our lives, and our sleep. People often claim they cannot sleep in a strange bed. When we settle down for the night a powerful part of us demands to feel secure, and to know that nothing has changed since the last time we slept. Lead me to my bed!
7 最后,我们必须考虑到习惯在我们的生活和睡眠中所起的作用。人们经常说他们睡不着陌生的床。当我们静下心来睡觉的时候,我们身上的一部分强烈地想要安全感,要知道从我们最后一次睡觉到现在什么都没有改变。领我到床上去!

为段落选择小标题

A) Sleeplessness and discomfort 失眠和不适
B) How sleep habits have changed 睡眠习惯是如何改变的
C) Long-term anxiety 长期焦虑
D) Staying cool in summer 在夏天保持凉爽
E) Sleep and security 睡眠和安全感
F) Comparisons between good and bad sleep 好睡眠和坏睡眠的比较
G) The importance of sleep 睡眠的重要性
H) The correct temperature for winter 冬天的正确温度
I) Temporary problems 临时问题
J) The full moon 满月

段落 答案 段落 答案 段落 答案
1 G 2 I 3 C
4 A 5 D 6 H
7 E

M - 中心思想 B - 太宽泛 N - 太窄

  1. Mental and physical pain makes it difficult for people to sleep. N
    精神和身体上的疼痛使人们难以入睡。
  2. Several suggestions are given to help readers avoid problems at night. B
    本文给出了一些建议,以帮助读者避免夜间出现问题。
  3. A good night’s sleep is very important and bad nights are caused by various factors. M
    一个好的夜晚睡眠是非常重要的,糟糕的夜晚是由各种因素造成的。

Unit 2 Text 5

美梦:少睡,长寿 (Sweet Dream: Sleep Less, Live Longer)

A) Contrary to popular belief, people who sleep six to seven hours a night live longer, and those who sleep eight hours or more die younger, according to the latest study ever conducted on the subject. The study, which tracked the sleeping habits of 1.1 million Americans for six years, undermines the advice of many sleep doctors who have long recommended that people get eight or nine hours of sleep every night.

A) 与人们的普遍观念恰恰相反,就睡眠所做的最新研究发现,每晚睡6 - 7个小时的人活得更久,睡8个小时或更长时间的人会更年轻死亡。这项对110万美国人的睡眠习惯进行了为期6年跟踪(track)调查的研究削弱(undermine)了许多睡眠医生长期以来建议人们每晚要睡8到9个小时的说法。

B) “There’s an old idea that people should sleep eight hours a night, which has no more scientific basis than the gold at the end of the rainbow,” said Daniel Kripke, a professor of psychiatry at the University of California at San Diego who led the study, published in a recent issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry. “That’s an old wives’ tale.”

B) 加州大学精神病学教授丹尼尔·克里普克在圣地亚哥主持了这项研究,并发表在最近一期的《普通精神病学文献》中。他说道:“旧的观点认为人们每晚应该睡8个小时,但这个观点就像彩虹末端的金色一样毫无科学依据(scientific basis),那是无稽之谈。”

C) The study was not designed to answer why sleeping longer may be deleterious or whether people could extend their life span by sleeping less.
But Kripke said it was possible that people who slept longer tended to suffer from sleep apnea, a condition where impaired breathing puts stress on the heart and brain. He also speculated that the need for sleep was akin to food, where getting less than people want may be better for them. The study quickly provoked cautions and criticism, with some sleep experts saying that the main problem in America’s sleep habits was deprivation, not sleeping too much.

C) 这项研究不是为了回答为什么睡得多可能是有害的(deleterious),也不是为了回答人们能否通过减少睡眠来延长寿命。
但克里普克说这有可能是因为睡得多的人就容易遭受睡眠呼吸暂停(sleep apnea),这是一种受损的呼吸带给心脏和大脑压力的状况。他还推测,人们对睡眠的需求类似于(be akin to)对食物的需求,人们的睡眠量比需求量少一点可能对身体更好。这项研究很快激起(provoke)了告诫和批评,一些睡眠专家说,美国人睡眠习惯的主要问题是人们缺乏(deprivation),而不是睡得太多。

D) “None of this says sleep kills people,”said Daniel Buysse, a University of Pittsburgh psychiatrist and the immediate past president of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
“You should sleep as much as you need to feel awake, alert and attentive the next day,” Buysse added. “I’m much more concerned about people short-changing themselves on sleep than people sleeping too long.”

D) 美国睡眠医学学会前主席,匹兹堡大学精神病学家丹尼尔·布斯说:“这并不是说睡眠导致死亡。”
布斯补充道:“你的睡眠要足够使你第二天保持清醒、警觉和专心致志(attentive)。我更担心的是人们减少自己的睡眠时间,而不是他们睡得太多。”

E) Sleeplessness produces a variety of health consequences that were not measured in the study, critics said.
“The amount of sleep you get impacts how alert you are, your risk for accidents, how you perform at work and school,” said James Walsh, president of the National Sleep Foundation, a non-profit that advocates for better sleep habits. “There’s much more to life than how long you live.”

E) 批评者们说,这项研究没有考虑失眠(Sleeplessness)对人们健康所造成的种种后果。
国家睡眠基金会(一家致力于提倡改善睡眠习惯的非赢利机构)主席詹姆斯·沃尔什说,“睡眠时间的长短会影响你的警觉程度、出事故的可能性和工作和学习表现。生命的意义远不止寿命的长短。”

F) The study used data from an extensive survey conducted by the American Cancer Society from 1982 to 1988. Women sleeping 8, 9 and 10 hours a night had 13 percent, 23 percent and 41 percent higher risk of dying, respectively, than those who slept 7 hours, the study found. Men sleeping 8, 9 and 10 hours a night had 12 percent, 17 percent and 34 percent greater risk of dying within the study period.

F) 这项研究使用了美国癌症协会从1982年到1988年进行的一项广泛的调查的数据。该研究发现,每晚睡8、9和10个小时的女性与睡7小时的女性相比,死亡率分别上升了13%、23%和41%。在此研究中,每晚睡8、9和10个小时的男性死亡率则分别上升了12%、17%和34%。

G) By contrast, sleeping five hours a night increased the risk for women by only 5 percent, and for men, by 11 percent. Among people who slept just three hours a night, women had a 33 percent increase in death, and men had a 19 percent increase, compared with those who slept seven hours.
Kripke, the new study’s leader, pointed out that relatively few people slept so little – 1 in 1,000 – whereas almost half of all people slept eight hours or more.

G) 相比之下,每晚睡5个小时的女性患病风险仅增加了5%,男性增加了11%。在每晚仅睡3小时的人群中,与睡7小时的人相比,女性死亡率上升33%,男性上升19%。
领导此项新的研究的克里普克指出:相对而言,睡这么少的人比较少——千分之一而已,而近乎有一半的人要睡8个小时甚至更多。

H) The study also found that taking a sleeping pill every day increased the risk of death by 25 percent.
“It appears there is no mortality risk to having insomnia,” Kripke said.
He recommended that people should not routinely take pills to get eight hours of sleep. While acknowledging that the sleeping pills used from 1982 to 1988 were not the same pills being used today, Kripke said, “without data showing that contemporary pills are safe, these data provide the best information about whether sleeping pills are safe for long-term use.”

H) 研究还发现,每天服用一粒安眠药会使死亡风险增加25%。
克里普克说:“似乎失眠(insomnia)没有死亡(mortality)风险。”
他建议人们不要为了达到8小时的睡眠而经常(routinely)服用安眠药。尽管克里普克承认1982年到1988年期间使用的安眠药和现在的安眠药不一样了,但他说:“如果没有数据表明现在的(contemporary)安眠药是安全的,这些数据就能提供最好的信息,说明安眠药长期使用是否安全。”

I) Kripke, whose study was funded by federal tax dollars, said doctors’ recommendations that everyone get eight hours of sleep a night may have been partly influenced by the drug companies that make sleeping pills. He cited a report from a public relations firm representing the medicine Ambien, which gave money to the National Sleep Foundation to alert people about an insomnia “public health crisis” as part of a marketing campaign.

I) 研究由联邦税款资助的克里普克说,医生们建议每人每晚睡8小时,这在一定程度上可能是受到了生产安眠药的药物公司的影响。他引用了一家公共关系公司撰写的关于安必恩药物的报告作为例子。该报告指出药物安必恩资助了国家睡眠基金会,以警告人们失眠问题是一场“公共健康危机”,而这其实是营销活动(marketing campaign)的一部分。

J) Both Buysse and Walsh have served as paid consultants to makers of sleeping pills, but both denied being influenced by that role. Walsh said most researchers in the field had accepted consulting fees from the companies, because 99 percent of the funding to support this type of research is from pharmaceutical companies.

J) 布斯和沃尔什都曾担任安眠药生产公司的付费顾问(paid consultants),但两人都否认受到了这个职位的影响。沃尔什说这个领域的大多数研究人员都接受公司向他们支付的咨询费(consulting fees),因为这类研究经费有99%是制药(pharmaceutical)公司资助的。

K) Buysse, who wrote an editorial accompanying Kripke’s article, said more research was needed to pin down exactly what the connection was between sleep and the risk of death. The study relied on people’s own reports of their sleeping habits, which can be faulty. When people are asked how long they sleep, they usually report how long they spend in bed, Buysse said.
That could mean that people who reported sleeping eight hours were really sleeping around seven and a half hours, which would bring them into the study’s lower risk category. Buysse also disagreed that sleep was like food, arguing that while people can restrict sleep, they cannot “choose” to sleep longer.

K) 布斯随同(accompanying)沃尔什的文章撰写了一篇社论(editorial),他说需要更多的研究来确定(pin down)睡眠和死亡风险之间的确切联系。这项研究依赖于人们自己报告的睡眠习惯,这可能会出错。布斯说,当人们被问及他们睡多长时间时,他们通常会报告他们在床上花多长时间。
这可能意味着那些报告睡8小时的人实际上睡了7.5个小时左右,这将把他们带入该研究的低风险类别。布斯也不同意睡眠如食物的观点,他强调虽然人们可以抵制睡眠,但他们无法“选择”睡得更久。

L) Donald Bliwise, a psychologist at Emory University, in Atlanta, said studies had shown that when people were allowed to sleep however long they wanted, without cues from alarm clocks and watches, they often slept 14 to 15 hours a day for the first few days.
“Everyone,” Bliwise said, “walks around somewhat sleep-deprived.”

L)亚特兰大埃默里大学心理学家唐纳德·布利怀斯说,已有研究表明,当让人们随心所欲地去睡,不受闹钟和手表提示的时候,他们通常在最初几天里每天会睡14到15个小时。
布斯说:“每个人在一定程度上都没有睡好。”

段落匹配

  1. The advocates of eight hours of sleep may be motivated by a marketing campaign to promote the selling of sleeping pills. I
    8小时睡眠的提倡者(advocate)可能是受到一场推销安眠药的营销活动的激励
  2. The causality between sleep and the risk of death is hard to figure out due to the lack of the solid data. K
    由于缺乏可靠的数据,睡眠和死亡风险之间的因果关系很难弄清楚。
  3. Research has showed that sleeping less than five hours a day increases the risk of dying. G
    研究表明,每天睡眠不足5小时会增加死亡风险。
  4. One theory says that people might as well sleep less than they need just as they had better eat less than they want. C
    有一种理论认为,人们不妨睡得比需要的少,就像他们最好吃得比想吃的少一样。
  5. A scholar maintains that to live longer is less important than to have a better life. E
    一位学者坚持认为,活得久不如活得好重要。
  6. The study whose result shows that the optimal sleeping time is six to seven hours lasts for six years. A
    这项研究的结果表明,最佳睡眠时间是6到7个小时,这种情况可以持续6年
  7. It is considered reasonable to sleep as long as one wants to in order to be in condition. D
    为了保持健康,一个人想睡多久就睡多久被认为是合理的。

F表示事实,O表示观点

  1. It appears there is no mortality risk to having insomnia. O
    似乎失眠(insomnia)没有死亡(mortality)风险。

  2. He recommended that people should not routinely take pills to get eight hours of sleep. O
    建议人们不要为了达到8小时的睡眠而经常服用安眠药。

  3. Both Buysse and Walsh have served as paid consultants to makers of sleeping pills. F
    布斯和沃尔什都曾担任安眠药生产商的顾问,报酬优厚。

  4. 【快速阅读中没有,在配套数字资源中出现】Contrary to popular belief, people who sleep six to seven hours a night live longer, and those who sleep eight hours or more die younger, according to the latest study ever conducted on the subject. O
    与人们的普遍观念恰恰相反,就睡眠所做的最新研究就发现每晚睡6至7个小时的人要比睡8个小时或更长时间的人寿命长。

    TIP: This is the conclusion of the latest study conducted on the subject of sleeping, and obviously it is based on personal opinion. 这是一项关于睡眠的最新研究得出的结论,显然这是基于个人观点。

Unit 3 Text 1

What are genetically modified(GM)food 什么是转基因食品

人类从对食物到对狗一类的小动物的基因改良已经经历了好几个世纪。但是在过去,选择性培养是唯一的办法。比如:如果你想去创造某一种类的谷物,用某一种真菌去反抗,你从种植的谷类植物小样上去下种子,并观察它们如何与真菌进行反抗、发展。在这个问题上,经过这些年的实验,人类已经创造了一批对真菌有强抵抗力的的谷类植物。

利用选择性的培养技术,人类已经培养了很多东西,从多色玫瑰到巨型南瓜,到一年两熟还对病害有强抵抗力的一批谷物。同样的方式,你可以抓几只鸡,分析它们的蛋,找出谁的蛋含有的更少的胆固醇。之后,你能饲养它们生产一批的低胆固醇鸡。你可以选择任何可发觉的特性,选择性的培养一批在某些方面拥有特性的特殊种类群。

现在基因工程的技术已经允许科学家们在植物或动物的明确的插入某一基因,直接省去了选择性培养的反复的实验。现在的基因技术,你还可以方面的进行种类的杂交。(比如;可以种植出生产胰岛素的植物)。先进的技术十分的标准化,基因也可以方便的进行杂交。

现在有一种技术,被用来改良植物和动物的基因。比如:这儿有一种广泛运用的除草剂叫做Roundup,是由Monsanto生产的。Roundup可以杀死任何它所接触到的植物。M发展改良了一批豌豆和另一些谷类植物叫Roundup Ready(RR),让他们对Roundup有抵抗功能,完全不受影响。通过培养RR的种子,一个农民能控制性的在这一批谷物种子上喷上RR。这些谷物种子完全忽略了除草剂,而杂草都被消灭光了。RR种子减少了生产中的损失并且增加了收成量,因此食物变得更加便宜了。另外一些科学家在植物中植入了天然杀虫剂的基因为了抵抗来自谷类害虫的损害,一种抗真菌的基因也可被良好的植入。时代在发展,任何都有发展的可能性。

Unit 3 Text 2

Feeding the world —— Facts versus fiction (喂养世界 - 现实 vs 理想)

Most hungry people live in countries that have food surpluses rather than deficits. According to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), we are already producing one and a half times the amount of food needed to provide everyone in the world with an adequate and nutritious diet, yet one in seven people is suffering from hunger.

大多数饥饿人口生活在粮食过剩而非短缺的国家。根据联合国粮食及农业组织(FAO)的数据,我们生产的粮食已经是为世界上每个人提供充足和营养饮食所需的1.5倍,然而七分之一的人仍在挨饿。

Rather than growing food to meet the needs of local communities for a healthy,diverse diet,industrial agriculture produces crops to sell on world markets. While world crop production has tripled since the 1950s,more people go hungry now than 20 years ago. Small family farmers are driven off their land and local people cannot afford to buy what is grown. Too often, the result is a downward spiral of environmental destruction, poverty and hunger.

工业化农业生产的作物在世界市场上销售,而不是种植粮食来满足当地社区对健康、多样化饮食的需要。尽管世界粮食产量自20世纪50年代以来增长了两倍,但与20年前相比,现在挨饿的人更多。小家庭农民被赶出了他们的土地,当地人也买不起种植的作物。其结果往往是环境破坏、贫困和饥饿的恶性循环。

Food security will not be achieved by technical fixes,like genetic engineering (GE). People who need to eat need access to land on which to grow food or money with which to buy food. Technological “solutions” like GE mask the real social, political,economic and environmental problems responsible for hunger.

粮食安全无法通过基因工程(GE)等技术手段来解决。需要吃东西的人需要获得种植食物的土地或购买食物的钱。像通用电气这样的技术“解决方案”掩盖了导致饥饿的真正社会、政治、经济和环境问题。

The case of Argentina, the number two producer of GE crops in the world and the only developing country growing GE food crops on a large commercial scale, shows that GE does not lead to an increase in food security. Millions of tons of GE soya are exported every year from Argentina for cattle feed, while millions of Argentineans go hungry.

阿根廷是世界上第二大转基因作物生产国,也是唯一一个大规模商业化种植转基因粮食作物的发展中国家。阿根廷的情况表明,转基因不会导致粮食安全的增加。阿根廷每年出口数百万吨转基因大豆作为牛饲料,而数百万阿根廷人却在挨饿。

Hunger and malnutrition are a direct result of a lack of access to,or exclusion from, productive resources, such as land, the forests, the seas, water, seeds,technology and credit. Seventy-five percent of the world’s hungry people are politically marginalized ones who live in rural areas. An example of the grossly unequal distribution of land that directly contributes to hunger: in Latin America,80 percent of agricultural land is in the hands of 20 percent ofthe farmers; the other 20 percent of the land is in the hands of the remaining80 percent.

饥饿和营养不良是无法获得或被排斥在土地、森林、海洋、水、种子、技术和信贷等生产性资源之外的直接结果。世界上75%的饥饿人口生活在农村地区,在政治上处于边缘地位。土地分配严重不平等直接导致饥饿的一个例子是:在拉丁美洲,80%的农业土地掌握在20%的农民手中;其余20%的土地在剩下的80%的人手中。

The current agricultural trade regime puts the South in an impossible situation. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) annual state subsidies of their national agricultural sectors exceed Sub-Saharan Africa’s entire Gross Domestic Product. Subsidized exports, artificially low prices and WTO legalized dumping by the rich countries characterize the current unfair model of agricultural trade faced by poor countries.

目前的农业贸易制度使南方处于一种不可能的境地。经济合作与发展组织(OECD)对其国家农业部门的年度国家补贴超过了撒哈拉以南非洲地区的全部国内生产总值。富国的补贴出口、人为压低价格和WTO允许的倾销是目前穷国面临的不公平农业贸易模式的特征。

Research often neglects the development of agricultural techniques that reduce the inputs needed and that are easy to control. Agricultural research at international and national levels is highly orientated towards industrial agriculture.

研究往往忽视了减少所需投入和易于控制的农业技术的发展。国际和国家一级的农业研究高度面向工业化农业。

GE crops have delivered record agricultural exports but the environmental and social price is both unacceptable and unsustainable. Livelihoods have been destroyed, hunger has increased and the environment is being badly damaged.

转基因作物带来了创纪录的农业出口,但其环境和社会代价既不可接受,也不可持续。生计遭到破坏,饥饿增加,环境遭到严重破坏。

Unit 3 Text 3

GE Agriculture and Genetic Pollution (农业基因工程和基因污染)

A 对转基因生物程的介绍,我们的环境是一个复杂的生态系统,这其中有危险的全球性的实验,也伴随着自然与进化。基因科学家改变了它们的本质。转基因工程的产物是一些需要存活的生物,却没有自然的进化与自然的栖息地。人类可以通过自然的生物进行复制或者跨品种产生新的生物,从而在一个新的环境和一个未知的未来中,不可以预测不可控制的发展。我们几乎不知道这些新的生物会在环境如何发展,因为这些生物会进行繁殖与传播,这些转基因生物中潜在的危险等到被发现或许已经太晚了。

B 因为以上原因,转基因生物不能直接被放到大自然中。它们对生态系统潜藏着不可接受的危险,对生物的多样性、野生物种、以及农业生态系统的稳定性都有极大威胁。

C 转基因生物威胁作物多样性。

作物遗传多样性是继续发展抵抗新害虫、疾病和极端气候以及极端环境情况的重要因素。作物多样性是全球作物发展的最基本的安全保障,事实上,这还关系到人类史上主要的作物流行病。

D 近些年1970s在美国南部的玉米作物被一种叫做南部作物枯萎病袭击。由于这些玉米作物在美国遗传的相一致性,这个疾病所带来的损失是巨大的,占据了总收成的15%,损失了约一亿美元。

E 根据植物学家JH认为,作物的遗传问题暗藏着我们所想象不到的大规模的饥荒。

F 转基因公司影响了农民的生计

如果认为影响生物多样性还不够,生物科技巨头使得农民对这些人工种植作物的使用权付出更多。北美和拉丁美洲是世界农业转基因最盛行的地方,农民必须签订明确的合同表明他们是否预留一些种子用作来年来种植甚至用过任何除草剂,除了公司自身的。农民们完完全全被掌控。

G 然而,随着意识的增长,消费者和农民们的问题也让整个转基因作物的问题逐步得到关注,农业产业化也可能被停止。

Unit 3 Text 4

What are the Risks of Cloning? 克隆的风险是什么 ?

When we hear of cloning successes, we learn about only the few attempts that worked. What we don’t see are the many, many cloning experiments that failed! And even in the successful clones, problems tend to arise later, during the animal’s development to adulthood.

当我们听到克隆成功的消息时,我们只了解到为数不多的成功尝试。我们看不到的是许许多多失败的克隆实验!即使在成功的克隆中,问题往往会在动物发育到成年后出现。

Cloning animals shows us what might happen if we try to clone humans. What have these animals taught us about the risks of cloning?

克隆动物向我们展示了如果我们试图克隆人类会发生什么。关于克隆的风险,这些动物教会了我们什么?

1. High failure rate 1. 高失败率

Cloning animals through somatic cell nuclear transfer is simply inefficient. The success rate ranges from 0.1 percent to 3 percent, which means that for every 1,000 tries, only one to 30 clones are made. Or you can look at it as 970 to 999 failures in 1,000 tries. That’s a lot of effort with only a speck of a return!

通过体细胞核移植克隆动物的效率很低。 成功率从 0.1% 到 3% 不等 , 这意味着每 1, 000 次尝试只有 1 到 30 次克隆成功。 或者你可以把它看作是 1000 次尝试中的 970 到 999 次失败。这是一个很大的努力,只有一点回报!

Why is this? Here are some reasons:

The enucleated egg and the transferred nucleus may not be compatible.

An egg with a newly transferred nucleus may not begin to divide or develop properly.

Implantation of the embryo into the surrogate (替代的) mother might fail.

The pregnancy itself might fail.

这是为什么 ?以下是一些原因 :

去核卵和转移的细胞核可能不兼容。

具有新转移的细胞核的卵可能不会开始分裂或正常发育。

将胚胎植入代孕母亲体内可能会失败。

怀孕本身可能会失败。

2. Problems during later development 2. 后期开发中的问题

Cloned animals that do survive tend to be much bigger at birth than their natural counterparts. Scientists call this “Large Offspring Syndrome” (LOS). Clones with LOS have abnormally large organs. This can lead to breathing, blood flow and other problems.

存活下来的克隆动物在出生时往往比它们的天然同类体型大得多。 科学家们称之为 “大子女综合症” ( LOS ) 。 患有 LOS 的克隆体的器官异常大。这会导致呼吸、血液流动和其他问题。

Because LOS doesn’t always occur, scientists cannot reliably predict whether it will happen in any given clone. Also, some clones without LOS have developed kidney or brain malformations and impaired immune systems, which can cause problems later in life.

因为LOS并不总是发生,科学家们不能可靠地预测它是否会发生在任何一个给定的克隆人身上。此外,一些没有LOS的克隆体出现了肾脏或大脑畸形,免疫系统受损,这可能会在以后的生活中造成问题。

3. Abnormal gene expression patterns 3.异常基因表达模式

Are the surviving clones really clones? The clones look like the originals, and their DNA sequences are identical. But will the clone express the right genes at the right time?

幸存的克隆体真的是克隆体吗 ? 克隆人看起来像原始人 , 他们的 DNA 序列是相同的。 但是克隆会在正确的时间表达正确的基因吗 ?

In a naturally-created embryo, the DNA is programmed to express a certain set of genes. Later on, as the embryonic cells begin to differentiate, the program changes. For every type of differentiated cell–skin, blood, bone or nerve, for example–this program is different.

在自然创造的胚胎中,DNA被设定为表达一组特定的基因。后来,当胚胎细胞开始分化时,程序也随之改变。对于每一种分化的细胞,例如皮肤、血液、骨骼或神经,这个程序都是不同的。

In cloning, the transferred nucleus doesn’t have the same program as a natural embryo. It is up to the scientist to reprogram the nucleus, like teaching an old dog new tricks. Complete reprogramming is needed for normal or near-normal development. Incomplete programming will cause the embryo to develop abnormally or fail.

在克隆中,移植的细胞核没有与自然胚胎相同的程序。科学家有责任对细胞核进行重新编程,就像教老狗学新把戏一样。正常或接近正常的开发需要完全的重新编程。不完全的编程将导致胚胎发育不正常或失败。

4. Telomeric differences 4. 端粒的差异

As cells divide, their chromosomes (染色体) get shorter. This is because the DNA sequences at both ends of a chromosome, called telomeres, shrink in length every time the DNA is copied. The older the animal is, the shorter its telomeres will be, because the cells have divided many, many times. This is a natural part of aging.

当细胞分裂时,染色体变短。这是因为染色体两端的 DNA 序列,即端粒,在每次复制 DNA 时都会收缩。 动物年龄越大,它的端粒就会越短,因为细胞已经分裂了许多次。这是衰老的一个自然部分。

So, what happens to the clone if its transferred nucleus is already pretty old? Will the shortened telomeres (端粒) affect its development or lifespan?

那么, 如果克隆转移的细胞核已经相当老了,会发生什么呢?缩短的端粒会影响其发育或寿命吗 ?

When scientists looked at the telomere lengths of cloned animals, they found no clear answers. Chromosomes from cloned cattle or mice had longer telomeres than normal. These cells showed other signs of youth and seemed to have an extended lifespan compared with cells from a naturally conceived cow. On the other hand, Dolly the Sheep’s chromosomes had shorter telomere lengths than normal. This means that Dolly’s cells were aging faster than the cells from a normal sheep.

To date, scientists aren’t sure why cloned animals show differences in telomere length.

当科学家们观察克隆动物的端粒长度时,他们没有找到明确的答案。克隆牛或老鼠的染色体端粒比正常的要长。这些细胞还表现出了其他的年轻迹象,与自然受孕的牛的细胞相比,它们的寿命似乎更长。另一方面,多利羊的染色体端粒比正常的要短。这意味着多莉的细胞比正常绵羊的细胞衰老得更快。

到目前为止,科学家们还不确定为什么克隆动物的端粒长度存在差异。

I. Complete the following summary of the text, using ONE word for each blank:

The whole process of cloning is full of risks. To name just a few, an egg with a newly transferred nucleus may first not divide or develop properly. Second, even if a surrogate mother has successfully given birth to a cloned animal, it may encounter the problem of LOS during its later development. Third, we have to make sure that the surviving clones may express the right genes at the right time and this needs constant reprogramming. Finally, telomere length is still another problem at which scientists fail to come to a conclusion. That’s why cloning experiments have a high failure rate.

克隆的整个过程充满了风险。举几个例子,一个带有新转移细胞核的卵子可能首先不能正常分裂或发育。其次,即使代孕母亲成功地生下了克隆动物,在其后期发展过程中可能会遇到LOS问题。第三,我们必须确保存活下来的克隆体能够在正确的时间表达正确的基因,而这需要不断地重新编程。最后,端粒长度仍然是另一个科学家无法得出结论的问题。这就是克隆实验失败率高的原因。

II. C正确,F错误

7 (F) Cloned animals tend to be bigger and stronger than their natural counterparts. 克隆动物往往比自然的同类动物更大更强壮。

8 (F) The clone will express the right genes at the right time so long as it is programmed. 克隆只要被编程,就会在正确的时间表达正确的基因。

9 © The shortened telomeres will not necessarily influence development of the clone. 缩短的端粒不一定会影响克隆的发育。

Unit 3 Text 5

Rice Genome Sequence Means More Food for the Future 水稻基因组序列意味着未来将有更多粮食

A) Scientists with the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project have published the DNA pattern for rice – the first crop plant to be completely decoded. Scientists around the world will use the new information to improve yields of rice and also other related grass crops such as barley, corn, rye, sugarcane and wheat.

国际水稻基因组测序项目的科学家公布了水稻的DNA模式,这是第一种被完全解码的作物。世界各地的科学家将利用这些新信息提高水稻和其他相关草作物的产量,如大麦、玉米、黑麦、甘蔗和小麦。

B) More than half the world’s growing population relies upon rice as a staple food, but worldwide environmental degradation has decreased rice production for the past four years. The newly published sequence offers the hope that rice yields can be increased to keep pace with demand. “This could probably provide the key in improving yield to feed an expanding world population at a time of increasing restraints on agriculture,” the IRGSP said in a statement.

世界上一半以上的人口以大米为主食,但是世界范围内的环境恶化使大米产量在过去四年里下降。新公布的序列为提高水稻产量以跟上需求提供了希望。IRGSP在一份声明中表示:“在农业受到越来越多限制的情况下,这可能为提高产量、满足不断扩大的世界人口提供关键。”

C) Analysis of the rice genome, reported in Thursday’s issue of the journal Nature, made public the location and sequence of over 37,500 protein-encoding genes in 389 million bases of DNA. By comparison, the human genome has 25,000 genes, so this important food crop has more genes than humans.

周四出版的《自然》杂志报道了对水稻基因组的分析,公布了3.89亿个DNA碱基中超过37500个蛋白质编码基因的位置和序列。相比之下,人类基因组有25000个基因,所以这种重要的粮食作物比人类拥有更多的基因。

D) “Knowing the sequence of one of the world’s most important crops, will be invaluable to plant genomics researchers. This project will potentially help millions of people around the globe,” said Arden L. Bement, Jr., director of the U.S. National Science Foundation, which funded part of the research.

"了解世界上最重要的作物之一的序列,对植物基因组学研究人员将是非常宝贵的。“美国国家科学基金会主任 Arden L. Bement 说,“这个项目有可能帮助全球数百万人。”

E) Agricultural experts estimate that world rice production must increase by 30 percent in the next 20 years to keep pace with the growing world population.

农业专家估计,世界水稻产量必须在未来20年增长30%,才能跟上世界人口增长的步伐。

F) Originally planned as a 10-year project, the rice genome sequence was completed in six years due to sharing of materials, data, and technology among researchers from publicly funded laboratories in countries who make up the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project.

由于国际水稻基因组测序项目的组成国的公共资助实验室的研究人员共享了材料、数据和技术,水稻基因组测序原本计划是一个10年的项目,但在6年内完成了。

G) Established in 1998, the Japanese-led IRGSP consortium includes the United States, China, Korea, India, Thailand, France, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. “This is one of the most accurate and complete sequences from a higher organism,” the IRGSP said. “The sequence was obtained through the clone-by-clone sequencing strategy. The accuracy of the sequence data is maintained at 99.999% corresponding to less than one error per 10,000 bases so that the reliability of identified genes is also high.” “Previously published draft sequences of rice are shown to lack the coverage and accuracy required to identify important genes,” the consortium said.

由日本领导的IRGSP联盟成立于1998年,包括美国、中国、韩国、印度、泰国、法国、巴西和英国。“这是高等生物中最精确和最完整的序列之一,”IRGSP说,“该序列是通过克隆逐个克隆的测序策略获得的。序列数据的准确性保持在99.999%,对应的误差小于1 / 10000个碱基,因此所鉴定的基因的可靠性也很高”。该协会说:“以前公布的水稻序列草案缺乏识别重要基因所需的覆盖度和准确性。”

H) The newly complete sequence builds upon earlier draft sequences published by private companies Monsanto and Syngenta, which donated their genome sequences to the IRGSP, saving the public consortium time and money. “This is a monumental achievement. Enough credit cannot be given to the IRGSP members for working together to advance the research of such an important world crop,” said Mary Clutter, assistant director for NSF’s biology directorate.

新完成的序列建立在私营公司孟山都(Monsanto)和先正达(Syngenta)公布的早期序列草案的基础上,这两家公司将他们的基因组序列捐赠给了IRGSP,从而节省了公共财团的时间和资金。“这是一个里程碑式的成就”,国家科学基金会生物理事会助理主任玛丽·克拉特说,“不能把足够的荣誉归于IRGSP成员共同努力推进如此重要的世界作物的研究。”

I) The japonica subspecies of rice, which is cultivated in Japan, Korea and the United States, was the type of rice analyzed. The group made public a draft sequence of the japonica genome in late 2002. Since then, IRGSP scientists have increased the quality of the sequence to 95 percent complete at greater than 99 percent accuracy. The accurate map-based sequence of the rice genome has already led to the identification of genes that affect the plant’s growth habit to promote yield and photoperiod genes to extend the range of elite cultivars. Scientists have used the finished sequence to identify genes that control fundamental processes, such as flowering.

在日本、韩国和美国种植的粳稻亚种是被分析的水稻类型。该研究小组在2002年晚些时候公开了粳稻基因组的草图。从那时起,IRGSP的科学家们已经将序列的质量提高到95%,准确率超过99%。通过对水稻基因组的精确图谱测序,人们已经鉴定出了影响水稻生长习性以促进产量的基因,还发现了一些光周期基因,从而扩大了优良品种的范围。科学家们已经使用完成的序列来识别控制基本过程的基因,比如开花。

J) The drought that is parching much of Asia this year will cost the region hundreds of millions of dollars in lost agricultural production and drive millions of people into poverty. A better scientific understanding of how a rice plant tolerates drought could help rice breeders to develop varieties that can withstand the dry years.

今年肆虐亚洲大部分地区的干旱,将使该地区损失数亿美元的农业生产,并使数百万人陷入贫困。对水稻如何耐受干旱有更好的科学理解,可以帮助水稻育种者培育出能够耐受干旱年份的品种。

K) “Rice is a critically important crop, and this finished sequence represents a major milestone,” said Robin Buell, lead investigator for the portion of the project conducted by The Institute for Genomic Research in Rockville, Maryland. “We know the scientific community can use these data to develop new varieties of rice that deliver increased yields and grow in harsher conditions.”

“水稻是一种极其重要的作物,这一完成的序列代表着一个重大的里程碑,”马里兰州罗克维尔基因组研究所(the Institute for Genomic Research)负责该项目部分的首席研究员罗宾·布尔(Robin Buell)说。“我们知道科学界可以利用这些数据开发新的水稻品种,提高产量,并在更恶劣的条件下生长。”

L) Rice has a smaller genome than maize and wheat, making it a better candidate for sequencing yet the rice genome is largely co-linear with other cereal genomes. Similar genes in the other plant species should appear in roughly the same spots as their rice counterparts. “Rice is the Rosetta Stone for crop genomes,” Buell says. “We can use the rice genome as a base for genomic studies of cereals.” Rice’s similarity to barley has helped researchers identify genes responsible for resistance to barley powdery mildew and stem rust, two major crop diseases.

水稻的基因组比玉米和小麦的要小,这使它成为测序的更好的选择,但水稻基因组很大程度上与其他谷物基因组是共线性的。在其他植物物种中类似的基因应该出现在与它们对应的水稻物种大致相同的位置。“水稻是作物基因组的罗塞塔石碑,”布尔说。“我们可以把水稻基因组作为谷物基因组研究的基础。”水稻与大麦的相似之处帮助研究人员识别了抗大麦白粉病和茎锈病的基因,这两种主要作物疾病。

M) Every year, the world consumes over 880 billion pounds of rice, but rice plants provide more than food. The grain is fermented into wine. Rice straw makes cattle feed, paper, rope and bricks. Rice oil goes into soap and cosmetics, and seed hulls provide fuel for simple stoves and packing material for fragile cargo.

每年,世界上消耗超过8800亿磅的大米,但是水稻提供的不仅仅是食物。谷物发酵成酒。稻草可以做牛饲料、纸、绳和砖。米油被用于制作肥皂和化妆品,种子壳为简易炉灶提供燃料,为易碎货物提供包装材料。

I. 段落匹配

G 1. The newly published rice genome sequence has a high degree of accuracy and reliability.

新发表的水稻基因组序列具有较高的准确性和可靠性。

A 2. Rice is the first crop plant with its genome sequences completely decoded.

水稻是第一种完全解码了其基因组序列的作物。

F 3.The International Rice Genome Sequencing Project was completed 4 years earlier than scheduled.

国际水稻基因组测序项目比计划提前4年完成。

I 4. The finished rice genome sequence has already been put into application.

完成的水稻基因组序列已投入应用。

H 5. The generous donation by private companies Monsanto and Syngenta saved the IRGSP both time and money of doing the research.

私营公司孟山都(Monsanto)和先正达(Syngenta)的慷慨捐赠,为IRGSP节省了进行研究的时间和资金。

M 6. Rice plants can be used for different purposes besides providing food.

水稻除了提供食物外,还可以用于不同的目的。

B 7. The newly published rice genome sequence may increase the probability of feeding the growing population.

新发表的水稻基因组序列可能会增加养活不断增长的人口的可能性。

L 8. The research on the rice genome sequence contributes greatly to the studies on other cereals.

水稻基因组序列的研究对其他谷物的研究具有重要意义。

C 9. According to the research results, rice has more genes than human.

根据研究结果,水稻比人类拥有更多的基因。

II. 按事件发生的顺序排序

2 a. A draft sequence of the japonica genome was released. 发布了粳稻基因组草案序列。

1 b. The Japanese led IRGSP consortium was established. 日本领导的IRGSP联盟成立。

4 c. Analysis of the rice genome was reported in an issue of the journal Nature. 对水稻基因组的分析发表在一期《自然》杂志上。

3 d. IRGSP scientists have increased the quality of the japonica genome sequence. IRGSP科学家提高了粳稻基因组序列的质量。

Unit 4 Text 1

thanks lance.h (lanceh.top)

A) 总理先生及今晚在座的诸位贵宾: 我谨代表你们的所有美国客人向你们表示感谢,感谢你们的无可比拟的盛情款待。中国人民以这种盛情款待而闻名世界。我们不仅要赞扬那些准备了这次盛大晚宴的人,而且还要特别赞扬那些为我们演奏美好音乐的人。我在外国从未听到过演奏得这么好的美国音乐。

B) 总理先生,我要感谢你的非常盛情和雄辩的讲话。此时此刻,通过电讯的奇迹,看到和听到我们讲话的人比在世界历史上任何其他这样的场合都要多。

C) 不过,我们在这里所讲的话,人们不会长久地记住,但我们在这里做的事却能改变世界。 正如你在祝酒时讲的那样,中国人民是伟大的人民,美国人民是伟大的人民。如果我们两国人民互相为敌,那么我们共同居住的这个世界的前途就的确很暗淡。但是,如果我们能够找到进行合作的共同点,那么实现世界和平的机会就将无可估量地大大增加。

D) 我希望我们这个星期的会谈将是坦率的。本着这种坦率的精神,让我们在一开始就认识到这样几点:过去一些时候我们曾是敌人,今天我们有巨大的分歧。使我们走到一起的,是我们有超越这些分歧的共同利益。在我们讨论我们的分歧时,我们双方都要在自己的原则上妥协。但是,虽然我们不能弥合双方之间的鸿沟,我们却能够设法搭一座桥,以便我们能够越过它进行会谈。

E) 因此,让我们在接下来的五天里,一起踏上漫漫征程,虽然步调不一致,但都是朝着同一个目标在不同的道路上前进。这个目标是建立一个公正和平的世界格局。在这个格局中,所有国家都能相互尊重,国家不论大小,都有权不受外界的干涉或统治,自主地决定自己的政府形式。世界在注视着我们,世界在聆听着我们,世界期盼着我们的决定。世界是什么呢?就我个人而言,我想起今天是我大女儿的生日,我想起了她,便想起了全世界的孩子们,亚洲的、非洲的、欧洲的和美洲的,各国大部分孩子都是在中华人民共和国建国以后出生的。

F) 该留给孩子们什么样的遗产呢?他们是注定要死于困扰旧世界的仇恨还是注定为创建新世界这一远景而生存呢? 我们毫无理由成为敌人,我们都既不窥视另一方的领土,也不寻求主宰另一方,更不想扩展势力统治世界。

G) 毛主席曾写道:“多少事,从来急,天地转,光阴迫,一万年太久,只争朝夕。”

H) 此时此刻,两国人民应该行动起来,努力开创一个全新的、更美好的世界。 本着这种精神,我诚邀在坐的各位与我共同为毛主席,为周总理,为中美两国人民的友谊,以及由此带给全世界人民的友谊与和平干杯。

Unit 4 Text 2

thanks lance.h (lanceh.top)

我觉得这个奖项不是奖给我个人的,而是奖给我的作品——一部在痛苦和汗水中铸就的有关人类精神的大作,不是为了荣誉,至少不是为了利益而创作,而是创造出一些以前不曾存在的有关人类精神的作品。所以说这个奖项知识在我这存放。要作一份跟诺贝尔奖起源的重要意义和目的相称的金钱方面的致辞并不难,但是我更愿意在这样喝彩的同事,利用此刻,为已经投身于同样苦恼和辛劳的文学工作的年轻人导航,他们中肯定有人会在将来的某一天站到我今天所站的地方。

我们今天的悲剧就是一个我们长期遭受甚至现如今已经能忍受的肉体上的恐惧。现在不再有关于精神方面的问题,这里只有一个疑问:我何时会被炸毁?因为这样,今天的年轻作者都忘记了人类内心的冲突,而就这冲突本身就能造就优秀的作品,因为只有它值得写,值得耗费我们的辛劳和汗水。

它需要重新学习这些。他要告诫自己万物之源就是恐惧,还要告诫自己永远忘掉它,也不要留任何的空间给他物,除了心灵深处古老的真理和事实。这个度老而普遍的真理就是——真爱、荣誉、怜悯、自豪、同情和牺牲,缺乏它,任何作品都是短暂而缺少生命力的。除非他这样做,否则他的作品就是诅咒。他写出来不是真爱而是性欲,没有任何人失去价值的战败,没有希望的胜利,最糟糕的是,没有同情和怜悯。他悲痛着没有实体的痛苦,也没留下疤痕,他写的不是心脏而是腺体。

只有他重新认识这些,他才能写出身临其境的世界末日景象。我拒绝接受世界末日论。我们很容易意识到人类是不朽的,因为他能忍受;当世界末日的丧钟敲响了,并消逝在最后一抹残阳下潮水退后显露出来的一块无用的岩石上,这里仍然会有一个声音:他微小而无穷尽的声音,一直持续着,我拒绝接受这一点。我相信人类不仅仅是忍受:他一定会战胜。他是不朽的,不是因为所有的生物中只有他有无穷尽的声音,而是因为他有灵魂,有能怜悯、牺牲和忍耐的精神。

诗人、作者的职责就是要描绘这些东西。这也是他的殊荣来帮助人类没,通过振作他的心,唤醒他的勇气、荣耀、希望、自豪、怜悯、同情和牺牲。这些都是他过去的光荣。诗人的声音不仅仅是人类的记录,它应该还是帮助他忍耐和战胜一切的支撑物和栋梁。

Unit 4 Text 3

thanks lance.h (lanceh.top)

1 I’m sorry, but I don’t want to be an emperor.
对不起,但我不想成为什么皇帝。

That’s not my business.

那不是我的事情。

I don’t want to rule or conquer anyone.

我不想统治或征服任何人。

I should like to help everyone if possible: Jew, gentile, black man, white.

我想帮助每个人: 犹太人,非犹太人,黑人,白人。

2 We all want to help one another. Human beings are like that.

我们要彼此帮助,人类就应该那样。

We want to live by each other’s happiness, not by each other’s misery.

我们要幸福的生活,而不是悲惨的。

We don’t want to hate or despise one another.

我们不希望彼此憎恨。

In this world, there is room for everyone and the good earth is rich and can provide for everyone.

在这个世界上,土地是富足的,它能养活每一个人。

The way of life can be free and beautiful,but we have lost the way.

生活本可以是自由且美好的,但是我们迷失了方向。

3 Greed has poisoned men’s souls, has barricaded the world with hate, has goose-stepped us into misery and bloodshed.

贪婪侵蚀了人们的灵魂 ,用憎恨阻隔了世界,我们一步步走向血腥。

We have developed speed but we have shut ourselves in.

我们飞速发展,但是同时又自我封闭。

Machinery that gives abundance has left us in want.

工业时代让我们物欲横流。

Our knowledge has made us cynical, our cleverness, hard and unkind.

我们的知识让我们玩世不恭,我们的智慧让我们冷酷无情。

4 We think too much and feel too little.

我们考虑得太多而感知得太少。

More than machinery we need humanity.

除了机器我们更需要人性。

More than cleverness we need kindness and gentleness.

除了智慧我们更需要仁慈和礼貌。

Without these qualities, life will be violent and all will be lost…

没有这些品格,生活将充满暴力,一切将不复存在…

The aeroplane and radio have brought us closer together.

飞机和收音机让我们彼此靠得更近。

These inventions cry out for the goodness in man, cry out for universal brotherhood, for the unity of us all.

这些发明呼唤人类的良知,呼唤全世界的手足情谊,让我们团结在一起。

5 Even now my voice is reaching millions, millions of despairing men, women and children, victims of a system that makes men torture ,and imprison innocent people.

现在我的声音传到数以百万的,数以百万的绝望的男人,女人和孩子们的耳朵里,被那些在暴政制度下痛苦折磨的受难者,和无端入狱的人们的听到。

6 To those who can hear me I say, do not despair. The misery upon us is but the passing of greed,the bitterness of men who fear the way of human progress.

我要对那些能够听到我讲话的人们说,不要绝望!我们正经受的悲惨遭遇不过是那些畏惧人类进步的,贪婪的人所承受的痛苦。

The hate of men will pass, and dictators die, and the power they took will return to the people.

人们间憎恨将会过去,独裁者也会消亡,被他们夺走的权力将会重新回到人民的手中。

So long as men die liberty will never perish.

只要人类没有灭亡自由之火就永不会熄灭。

7 Soldiers, don’t give yourselves to brutes, men who despise you, enslave you,regiment your lives, tell you what to think and feel, who drill you, treat you like cattle and use you as cannon fodder.

士兵们,不要替那些畜生们卖命,他们鄙视你们,奴役你们,操纵你们的生命,告诉你该想什么,感觉什么,他们把你们当牛一样训练为的只是拿你们去当炮灰。

8 Don’t give yourselves to these men, machine men with machine minds mand machine hearts.

不要把自己的命运交给给这些人,这些像机器一样思想机械毫无感情的人。

You are not machines, you are not cattle, you are men! You have the love of humanity in you.

你们不是机器,你们不是牛,你们是人!你们每个人的心中有着人性的爱。

9 Don’t hate. Only the unloved and the unnatural hate. Soldiers, don’t fight for slavery, fight for liberty!

不要憎恨,只有那些没有人爱和邪恶的人才会憎恨。士兵们,不要为奴役而战斗,要为了自由而战斗!

10 St Luke says, "The Kingdom of God is within man. " Not in one man nor a group of men, but in all men. In you!

圣徒路加说过,“上帝的国就就在人间” 。不在一个人也不是在一群人中,而是在所有的人中,就在你们之中!

You have the power to create machines, the power to create happiness.You have the power to make this life free and beautiful, to make this life a wonderful adventure.

你们有能力创造机器,有能力去创造快乐,你们有能力使生活自由而美好,把生活当作一场美妙的冒险。

In the name of democracy, let us use that power.

以民主的名义,让我们使用这种能力吧

11 Let us all unite, let us fight for a new world,a world that will give men a chance to work, that will give youth a future and old age security.

让我们联合起来,为创造一个崭新的世界而奋斗,在这个世界人们将不会失业 ,它会给青年人更好的未来,老人也老有所养。

Promising these things, brutes have risen. But they lie! They do not fulfil that promise. They never will! Dictators free themselves but they enslave the people.

那些畜生们对我们承诺过的,全都是谎言!他们没有实现那些诺言 永远都不会!独裁者使自己享受了自由却奴役其他人,

12 Now let us fight to fulfil that promise! Let us fight to free the world, to do away with national barriers to do away with greed, with hate and intolerance.

现在,让我们为实现那个诺言而斗争吧!让我们为了自由的世界而斗争,为了废除国界而斗争 ,为了驱除贪婪,憎恨和狭隘而斗争.

13 Let us fight for a world of reason, a world where science and progress will lead to the happiness of all. Soldiers, in the name of democracy, let us unite!

让我们为了自由的世界而斗争,为了废除国界而斗争。为了驱除贪婪,憎恨和狭隘而斗争。让我们为一个公正世界而斗争,一个科学和进步将会为全体人类创造幸福的世界。士兵们,以民主的名义让我们联合起来!

Unit 4 Text 4

thanks lance.h (lanceh.top)

热血、辛劳、眼泪和汗水(1940.5.13)

A) 星期五晚上,我接受了英王陛下的委托,组织新政府。这次组阁,应包括所有的政党,既有支持上届政府的政党,也有上届政府的反对党,显而易见,这是议会和国家的希望与意愿。

B) 我已完成了此项任务中最重要的部分。战时内阁业已成立,由5位阁员组成,其中包括反对党的自由主义者,代表了举国一致的团结。三党领袖已经同意加入战时内阁,或者担任国家高级行政职务。三军指挥机构已加以充实。由于事态发展的极端紧迫感和严重性,仅仅用一天时间完成此项任务,是完全必要的。其他许多重要职位已在昨天任命。我将在今天晚上向英王陛下呈递补充名单,并希望于明日一天完成对政府主要大臣的任命。其他一些大臣的任命,虽然通常需要更多一点的时间,但是,我相信会议再次开会时,我的这项任务将告完成,而且本届政府在各方面都将是完整无缺的。

C) 我认为,向下院建议在今天开会是符合公众利益的。议长先生同意这个建议,并根据下院决议所授予他的权力,采取了必要的步骤。今天议程结束时,建议下院休会到5月21日星期二。当然,还要附加规定,如果需要的话,可以提前复会。下周会议所要考虑的议题,将尽早通知全体议员。现在,我请求下院,根据以我的名义提出的决议案,批准已采取的各项步骤,将它记录在案,并宣布对新政府的信任。

D) 组成一届具有这种规模和复杂性的政府,本身就是一项严肃的任务。但是大家一定要记住,我们正处在历史上一次最伟大的战争的初期阶段,我们正在挪威和荷兰的许多地方进行战斗,我们必须在地中海地区做好准备,空战仍在继续,众多的战备工作必须在国内完成。在这危急存亡之际,如果我今天没有向下院做长篇演说,我希望能够得到你们的宽恕。我还希望,因为这次政府改组而受到影响的任何朋友和同事,或者以前的同事,会对礼节上的不周之处予以充分谅解,这种礼节上的欠缺,到目前为止是在所难免的。正如我曾对参加本届政府的成员所说的那样,我要向下院说:“我没什么可以奉献,有的只是热血、辛劳、眼泪和汗水。”

E) 摆在我们面前的,是一场极为痛苦的严峻的考验。在我们面前,有许多许多漫长的斗争和苦难的岁月。你们问:我们的政策是什么?我要说,我们的政策就是用我们全部能力,用上帝所给予我们的全部力量,在海上、陆地和空中进行战争,同一个在人类黑暗悲惨的罪恶史上所从未有过的穷凶极恶的暴政进行战争。这就是我们的政策。你们问:我们的目标是什么?我可以用一个词来回答:胜利——不惜一切代价,去赢得胜利;无论多么可怕,也要赢得胜利,无论道路多么遥远和艰难,也要赢得胜利。因为没有胜利,就不能生存。大家必须认识到这一点:没有胜利,就没有英帝国的存在,就没有英帝国所代表的一切,就没有促使人类朝着自己目标奋勇前进这一世代相传的强烈欲望和动力。但是当我挑起这个担子的时候,我是心情愉快、满怀希望的。我深信,人们不会听任我们的事业遭受失败。此时此刻,我觉得我有权利要求大家的支持,我要说:“来吧,让我们同心协力,一道前进。”

Unit 4 Text 5

thanks lance.h (lanceh.top)

Ronald Reagan: The Space Shuttle “Challenger” Tragedy Address 罗纳德·里根:关于“挑战者号”航天飞机悲剧的演讲

Ladies and Gentlemen, I’d planned to speak to you tonight to report on the state of the Union, but

the events of earlier today have led me to change those plans. Today is a day for mourning and

remembering. Nancy and I are pained to the core by the tragedy of the shuttle Challenger. We know we share this pain with all of the people of our country. This is truly a national loss.

女士们先生们:本来,我打算今天晚上向你们宣读国情咨文,但今天早些时候发生的事件让我改变了计划。今天是哀悼和怀念的日子。南希和我为“挑战者号”航天飞机的悲剧感到至为痛心。我们知道全体国人人同此心。这真正是全国人的损失。

Nineteen years ago, almost to the day, we lost three astronauts in a terrible accident on the ground. But, we’ve never lost an astronaut in flight. We’ve never had a tragedy like this. And perhaps we’ve forgotten the courage it took for the crew of the shuttle. But they, the Challenger Seven, were aware of the dangers, but overcame them and did their jobs brilliantly. We mourn seven heroes: Michael Smith, Dick Scobee, Judith Resnik, Ronald McNair, Ellison Onizuka, Gregory Jarvis, and Christa McAuliffe. We mourn their loss as a nation together.

十九年前,几乎就在今天,在一次可怕的地面事故中,我们丧失了三名宇航员。然而我们从未在飞行中丧失过宇航员,从未经历过这样的灾难。也许我们已经忘记,航天飞机机组人员需要多么大的勇气;但是挑战者七壮士深知其中的危险,他们坚忍不拔,出色地履行了自己的职责。我们悼念七位英雄:迈克尔·史密斯、迪克·斯科比、朱迪恩·伦斯尼克、罗纳德·卖克奈尔、埃利森·奥尼祖卡、格雷戈里·贾维斯、克丽斯塔·麦考利夫。我们举国哀悼失去的英雄。

For the families of the seven, we cannot bear, as you do, the full impact of this tragedy. But we feel the loss, and we’re thinking about you so very much. Your loved ones were daring and brave, and they had that special grace, that special spirit that says, “Give me a challenge, and I’ll meet it with joy.” They had a hunger to explore the universe and discover its truths. They wished to serve, and they did. They served all of us.

对于这七个人的家人,我们不能百分之百地像你们那样的感受这场灾难的打击。但是我们感受到了损失,我们认为你们一定也是这样。你们的亲人勇敢无畏,他们的特殊姿态和特殊精神告诉我们:“把挑战给我,我要满怀喜悦的去迎接。“他们渴望探索宇宙,渴望揭开宇宙的奥秘。他们希望尽职,他们做到了。他们为我们所有的人尽了职。

We‘ve grown used to wonders in this century. Its hard to dazzle us. But for twenty-five years the United States space program has been doing just that. We’ve grown used to the idea of space, and, perhaps we forget that we’ve only just begun. We’re still pioneers. They, the members of the Challenger crew, were pioneers.

这个世纪,我们对奇迹已习以为常。很难有什么会使我们赞叹不已。但是美国航天计划二十五年来做的正是如此。我们对太空计划已经习以为常,也许已经忘了我们不过刚刚起步。我们仍然是开拓者。他们——挑战者号全体机组人员是开拓者。

And I want to say something to the schoolchildren of America who were watching the live coverage of the shuttle’s take-off. I know it’s hard to understand, but sometimes painful things like this happen. It’s all part of the process of exploration and discovery. It’s all part of taking a chance and expanding man’s horizons. The future doesn’t belong to the fainthearted; it belongs to the brave.

The Challenger crew was pulling us into the future, and we’ll continue to follow them.

我要对观看航天飞机发射直播的美国学童说几句话。我知道后者难以理解,但有时像这样令人痛苦的事确实会发生。这些都是探索和发现过程的一部分。这些都是承担风险、拓展人类世界范围的一部分。未来不属于弱者,未来属于强者。挑战者号全体人员把我们推向未来,我们将继续追随他们。

I’ve always had great faith in and respect for our space program. And what happened today does nothing to diminish it. We don’t hide our space program. We don’t keep secrets and cover things up. We do it all up front and in public. That’s the way freedom is, and we wouldn’t change it for a minute.

我一直对我们的航天计划充满信心,并怀抱敬意。今天发生的悲剧决不会削弱它。我们没有隐藏自己的航天计划。我们没有保密和隐瞒。我们堂堂正正地公开实施它。这正是自由的方式,我们一分钟也不会改变它。

We‘ll continue our quest in space. There will be more shuttle flights and more shuttle crews and, yes, more volunteers, more civilians, more teachers in space. Nothing ends here; our hopes and our journeys continue.

我们将继续探索太空。我们将有更多次航天飞行,有更多宇航员,更多志愿者,更多平民,更多教师进入太空。一切都不会到此为止。我们的希望和我们的旅程不会停步。

I want to add that I wish I could talk to every man and woman who works for NASA, or who worked on this mission and tell them: “Your dedication and professionalism have moved and impressed us for decades. And we know of your anguish. We share it.”

我还想说,但愿我能和为国家航空航天局,或者为完成此次使命而工作的每一个人谈话,告诉他们:“几十年来,你们的奉献和敬业精神令我们感动,让我们铭记在心。我们了解你们的痛苦。我们感同身受。”

There’s a coincidence today. On this day 390 years ago, the great explorer Sir Francis Drake died aboard ship off the coast of Panama. In his lifetime the great frontiers were the oceans, and a historian later said, “He lived by the sea, died on it, and was buried in it.” Well, today, we can say of the Challenger crew: Their dedication was, like Drake’s, complete.

今天是一个巧合。三百九十年前的今天,伟大的探险家佛朗西斯·德雷克勋爵在巴拿马附近海面的一条船上死去。在他生活的时代,最大的疆界就是海洋。后来一位历史学家说:“他生在海边,死在海上,葬在海里。“今天我们可以这样对挑战者号乘员说:像德雷克一样,他们的奉献是毫无保留的。

The crew of the space shuttle Challenger honored us by the manner in which they lived their lives. We will never forget them, nor the last time we saw them, this morning, as they prepared for their journey and waved goodbye and “slipped the surly bonds of earth” to “touch the face of God.”

挑战者号航天飞机乘员的生命历程给我们带来荣耀,我们永远不会忘记他们,也不会忘记今天早上最后一次见到他们,那时他们正准备上路,挥手告别,“挣脱大地粗暴的束缚,去触摸上帝的脸”。

Unit 5 Text 1

原文链接:快速阅读四第五单元翻译 | 吃史餐厅

We are terrible at interviewing. We walk into the interview room without preparing. We spend time worrying about “trick questions” and about what shirt we should wear, instead of the things that really matter. Worst of all, we believe an interview is intended for us to simply answer the questions that the interviewer gives us.
我们不擅长面试。我们没有准备就走进了面试室。我们把时间花在担心“骗人的问题”和我们应该穿什么衬衫上,而不是真正重要的事情上。最糟糕的是,我们相信面试是为了简单地回答面试官给我们的问题。

I say this as someone who’s sat on both sides of the table: as a candidate, interviewing against some of the world’s toughest companies (like Google and a multi-billion-dollar hedge fund), and as a hiring manager.
我这样说是因为我是一个坐在谈判桌两边的人:作为候选人,面对一些世界上最难对付的公司(比如谷歌和一家价值数十亿美元的对冲基金)进行面试,作为招聘经理。

Yet once you can master the interview process, you can secure job offers against other candidates who have many years more experience than you. In today’s economy, knowing how to interview is a killer skill.
然而,一旦你掌握了面试流程,你就可以在其他比你有多年工作经验的应聘者面前获得工作机会。在今天的经济中,知道如何面试是一项致命的技能。

That starts with knowing what to avoid doing in a job interview, or what I call “5 Interview Killers.”
首先要知道在面试中应该避免做什么,或者我称之为“5个面试杀手”

  1. “I just sort of… and then… and like… and uh… yeah.”
  2. “我只是有点。。。然后。。。就像。。。呃。。。是的。”
    If you ramble, you lose.
    如果你漫无目的,你就输了。

Think back to when you last met someone and asked them a simple question (“So, what did you do at Acme Corp?”), only to hear 6 minutes of irrelevant details. How did you feel?
回想一下你上一次遇见某人的时候,问了他们一个简单的问题(“那么,你在Acme公司做了什么?”),结果只听到了6分钟不相关的细节。你感觉怎么样?

Now imagine this happening in a job interview. Interviewers aren’t just evaluating your technical skills. They’re using the “Airport Test,” asking themselves, ‘Could I see myself being stuck in an airport with this person?’
现在想象一下在面试中会发生这样的事情。面试官不仅仅是在评估你的技术技能。他们使用“机场测试”,问自己,‘我能看到自己和这个人被困在机场吗?’

Like it or not, we’re evaluated on our personality as well as our skills. And if you can’t give a tight, concise answer in an interview, the interviewer will wonder if you’ll be able to do it in your job.
不管你喜不喜欢,我们的个性和技能都会受到评价。如果你在面试中不能给出一个紧凑、简洁的答案,面试官会怀疑你是否能在工作中做到这一点。

  1. “Yeah, I helped out with that but it wasn’t just me.”
  2. “是的,我帮了忙,但不仅仅是我。”

Humility is a great trait, but going out of your way to be self-deprecating is an interview turn-off.
谦虚是一种很好的品质,但刻意自嘲是一种面试障碍。

You should always be candid about your role, but your interviewer doesn’t care about your team dynamics or organizational chart. He wants to know what you did. He wants to know how you think. He wants to know about YOU.
你应该对自己的角色坦诚相待,但面试官并不关心你的团队动态或组织结构图。他想知道你做了什么。他想知道你是怎么想的。他想了解你。

If you keep downplaying your accomplishments, how is a hiring manager supposed to value you enough to hire you?
如果你一直贬低自己的成就,那么招聘经理应该如何重视你,让你雇佣你呢?

It’s okay to be proud of the work you’ve done. It’s okay to be confident. Try it: Practice saying, “I’m glad you asked about that project. I’m really proud of the results we got, including a 13% revenue increase in 6 months.” See how that makes you feel.
为你所做的工作感到骄傲是可以的。自信是可以的。试试看:练习说:“我很高兴你问起那个项目。我真的为我们的业绩感到骄傲,包括6个月内13%的收入增长。

Does it feel uncomfortable the first time? Of course. We’re not used to talking about our accomplishments without downplaying them. But the fifth time you practice your confident answers, it will start to feel natural.
第一次感觉不舒服吗?当然。我们不习惯谈论我们的成就而不轻描淡写。但是当你第五次练习自信的答案时,你会开始觉得很自然。

  1. “I left my last job because I didn’t really get along with my boss.”
  2. “我辞掉了上一份工作,因为我和老板相处不好。”

We’ve all had bosses from hell, but an interview is not the place to trade war stories.
我们都有来自地狱的老板,但面试不是交换战争故事的地方。

Take the high road: “I really enjoyed working at Acme Corp. One of the things I appreciated was being able to grow my skills in email marketing, but now I’m ready to take my skills to a bigger stage. That’s why I’m excited to work with you…”
走正道:“我真的很喜欢在Acme公司工作。我欣赏的一件事是能够提高我在电子邮件营销方面的技能,但现在我准备把我的技能提升到一个更大的阶段。所以我很高兴能和你一起工作……”

  1. “I work too hard.”
  2. “我工作太辛苦了。”

What’s your biggest weakness?
你最大的弱点是什么?

Interviewers love to ask this question because it separates the top performers from the average workers. The most common – and worst – responses are trite: “I work too hard” or “I have trouble saying no to responsibility.”
面试官喜欢问这个问题,因为它将优秀员工与普通员工区分开来。最常见也是最糟糕的回答是陈词滥调:“我工作太努力了”或者“我很难拒绝责任。”

Hiring managers aren’t stupid. They can see right through these canned responses.
招聘经理并不愚蠢。他们能看穿这些陈腐的反应。

So what is the right answer to a question about your biggest weakness?
那么,对于一个关于你最大弱点的问题,正确答案是什么呢?

Look for the “question behind the question.” What interviewers really want to know is that you’re self-perceptive enough to acknowledge your weaknesses – which we all have – and that you’ve taken recent action to improve them.
寻找“问题背后的问题”。面试官真正想知道的是,你有足够的自我认知能力,能够承认自己的弱点——我们都有弱点——而且你最近采取了行动来改善这些弱点。

So instead of a canned answer, explain what a real weakness you have and how you’ve worked to fix it. Include specifics. Point to conferences you’ve attended or projects you’ve taken on.
因此,与其给出一个固定的答案,不如解释一下你真正的弱点是什么,以及你是如何解决它的。包括细节。指出你参加过的会议或承担过的项目。

That’s how you answer the weakness question and nail the interview.
这就是你如何回答弱点的问题和确定面试的方法。

  1. “I made 40K at my last job, so I’m really looking for something more like 50K. But you know…I’ll be willing to take 45K too.”
  2. “我上一份工作挣了4万,所以我真的在找更像5万的东西。但你知道……我也愿意拿四万五千。”

Your interviewer will always want to know how much you made at your last job. But it’s not your responsibility to tell them.
你的面试官总是想知道你上一份工作挣了多少钱。但你没有责任告诉他们。

In fact, you put yourself at a severe disadvantage if they know your salary. For example, if you tell them you make $50,000, and the hiring manager was prepared to offer you $60,000, you’ve just lost thousands of dollars from one sentence.
事实上,如果他们知道你的薪水,你会让自己处于非常不利的地位。例如,如果你告诉他们你赚了5万美元,而招聘经理准备给你6万美元,你一句话就损失了几千美元。

Even in this economy, few companies will reject you for simply not answering the salary question. That’s because it costs thousands of dollars to recruit the average candidate. If they really want you, they’ll make you an offer, and you can negotiate from there.
即使在这种经济形势下,也很少有公司会因为你不回答薪水问题而拒绝你。那是因为招募一个普通的候选人要花费数千美元。如果他们真的需要你,他们会给你一个条件,你可以从那里谈判。

When they ask for your salary, here’s your line to use: “I’m sure we can discuss salary when the time is right, but for now I just want to see if there’s a mutual fit for you and me.”
当他们要你的薪水时,你可以这样说:“我相信我们可以在合适的时候讨论薪水问题,但现在我只想看看你和我是否有共同的理想。”

Negotiating can be tough, but it can be worth thousands of dollars to you (here’s how to negotiate your salary the right way).
谈判可能很艰难,但对你来说可能值几千美元(以下是如何以正确的方式谈判你的薪水)。

There you have it – 5 Interview Killers to avoid in an interview. Avoid these blunders and watch your interviewing success skyrocket.
就这样——面试中要避免5个面试杀手。避免这些失误,看着你的面试成功一飞冲天。

Unit 5 Text 2

原文链接:快速阅读四第五单元翻译 | 吃史餐厅

So you’ve finally made it to the “real world” and landed your first job. Congratulations! Before you dive into the working world, there are a few common pitfalls you should try to avoid. Click through to learn about the eight biggest career mistakes young professionals tend to make.
所以你终于进入了“现实世界”,找到了你的第一份工作。祝贺 你!在你进入职场之前,你应该避免一些常见的陷阱。点击此处了解年轻专业人士在职业生涯中容易犯的八大错误。

Being Afraid to Speak Up
不敢说话

Whether it’s asking for a raise, time off, or just voicing an opinion, it’s important to stand up for yourself in the office. The more confidence you exude, the more others will have in you, and as long as you do it in a respectful and professional way, your colleagues will be more impressed than put-off by your assertiveness. Make sure to know your worth and not let your age or inexperience dictate how others treat you.
无论是要求加薪、休假,还是只是发表意见,在办公室里为自己站出来都很重要。你表现出的自信越多,别人对你的信任也就越多,只要你以一种尊重和专业的方式去做,你的同事就会对你的自信印象深刻,而不是反感。一定要知道自己的价值,不要让你的年龄或经验不足左右别人如何对待你。

No matter how casual your office might be, do not get fooled into thinking you can have as much fun as you want at holiday or other office parties, dinners and events. It’s fine to loosen up and get to know your coworkers outside the office – in fact, it’s actually great for relationship building – but make sure you have your wits about you. There’s nothing worse than waking up the morning after an office event regretting what you did or said.
不管你的办公室有多随便,不要以为你可以在假期或其他办公室聚会、晚宴和活动中尽情享受乐趣。放松一下,在办公室外认识你的同事是可以的——事实上,这对建立人际关系很有好处——但要确保你有自己的智慧。没有什么比早上在一次办公室活动后醒来后悔你的所作所为更糟糕的了。

Goofing Off
游手好闲

You may think no one is looking or particularly cares about what you’re doing all day, but if you’re like most young professionals, you sit in a cube with your computer screen visible to all who pass by. So it’s important to limit the amount of time you spend on Facebook, personal email and other non-work-related sites. Even though your boss may seem relaxed, he’s not going to appreciate an employee who seems to care more about her friend’s status updates than her actual work.
你可能认为没有人在看或特别关心你整天在做什么,但如果你和大多数年轻的专业人士一样,你坐在一个立方体里,所有路过的人都能看到你的电脑屏幕。因此,限制你花在Facebook、个人电子邮件和其他与工作无关的网站上的时间是很重要的。即使你的老板看起来很放松,他也不会欣赏一个似乎更关心朋友的状态更新而不是实际工作的员工。

Dressing Inappropriately
穿衣不当

Sometimes, it can be difficult to be taken seriously as a young professional. One thing that can either help or hurt you is how you present yourself. If you dress too provocatively, young or casual, you could be sending the wrong message to your coworkers. Just because you have it, doesn’t mean the office is the place to wear it. If you want to be taken seriously, dress seriously.
有时,作为一个年轻的专业人士,很难被认真对待。有一件事既可以帮助你,也可以伤害你,那就是你如何展现自己。如果你穿得太挑逗、太年轻或太随便,你可能会向同事传达错误的信息。仅仅因为你有它,并不意味着办公室就是穿它的地方。如果你想被人认真对待,那就穿正经的衣服。

Not Networking
不联网
Yes, working hard and being seen as a dedicated employee is vital to your professional success, but professional relationships are just as important when it comes to getting your next job or promotion. Many young people are afraid to network and appear aggressive, but it is an established part of the working world. A good way to start is by asking your superiors whom you look up to for career guidance.
是的,努力工作并被视为一名敬业的员工对你的职业成功至关重要,但在获得下一份工作或晋升时,职业关系同样重要。许多年轻人害怕与人交往,显得咄咄逼人,但这是职场的一个既定组成部分。一个好的开始方式是问你的上司你期待谁的职业指导。

Gossiping in the Office
办公室八卦

While networking is the right way to build relationships, gossiping is not. Commiserating with coworkers over shared office gripes can be a great way to bond, but it’s a dangerous habit to get into and can cause friction with other colleagues. If others come to you with gossip or complaints, refrain from joining in and stay neutral. In the long run, it will serve you better to not make enemies at work.
虽然网络是建立关系的正确方式,但八卦不是。对同事共同的办公室抱怨表示同情是一种很好的沟通方式,但这是一种危险的习惯,可能会引起与其他同事的摩擦。如果其他人带着闲话或抱怨来找你,不要加入,保持中立。从长远来看,不要在工作中树敌对你有好处。

Being Late for Work
上班迟到
Appearance is everything. You could be the hardest worker in the office or do extra work from home, but if you are consistently late to work, you give off the impression that you’re a slacker. People notice who stays late and who comes in early and will form an opinion about you, whether it’s accurate or not. Your professional reputation is a vital part of getting ahead in your industry and being late to work sounds trivial, but it can gradually undermine all your hard work.
外表决定一切。你可能是办公室里工作最辛苦的人,或者在家里做额外的工作,但是如果你总是迟到,你就会给人一种懒汉的印象。人们注意到谁迟到,谁早来,就会对你形成一种看法,不管这种看法是否准确。你的职业声誉是在你的行业取得成功的一个重要组成部分,迟到听起来微不足道,但它会逐渐削弱你所有的努力工作。

Acting Entitled
署名

Acting too confident is a common issue with young professionals. It is sometimes hard for recent college graduates to transition from top-of-the-food-chain seniors to professional “freshmen.” Now that you’re out of the collegiate bubble, you must remember to be humble and know your place in the company. Just because you might have graduated cum laude, doesn’t mean you’re too good to make photocopies, and that attitude will hurt your chances of being promoted.
表现得过于自信是年轻专业人士的共同问题。对于刚毕业的大学毕业生来说,从食物链最高层的大四学生过渡到专业的“新生”有时是很困难的。现在你已经走出了大学泡沫,你必须记住要谦虚,要知道自己在公司中的地位。仅仅因为你可能以优等成绩毕业,并不意味着你太擅长复印,这种态度会损害你升职的机会。

Unit 5 Text 3

原文链接:快速阅读四第五单元翻译 | 吃史餐厅

Do you want to love what you do for a living? Follow your passion. This piece of advice provides the foundation for modern thinking on career satisfaction. And this is a problem.
你想热爱你的工作吗?追随你的激情。这一建议为现代职业满意度的思考提供了基础。这是个问题。

I’ve spent the past several years researching and writing about the different strategies we use to pursue happiness in our work. It became clear early in this process that the suggestion to “follow your passion” was flawed.
在过去的几年里,我一直在研究和写作我们在工作中追求幸福的不同策略。在这个过程的早期,很明显“追随你的激情”的建议是有缺陷的。

The first strike against this advice is the lack of scientific evidence. Motivation and satisfaction in the workplace is a major research topic, as happy employees are better employees.
反对这一建议的第一个理由是缺乏科学证据。工作中的动机和满意度是一个主要的研究课题,因为快乐的员工是更好的员工。

It’s difficult, however, to find studies that argue the importance of matching a work environment to a pre-existing passion. Most studies instead point to the importance of more general traits, like autonomy or a sense of competence (see, for example, the voluminous research literature on Self-Determination Theory for more on such findings).
然而,很难找到研究证明将工作环境与已有激情相匹配的重要性。相反,大多数研究都指向更一般的特征的重要性,如自主性或能力感(例如,更多关于这类发现的信息,请参阅大量关于自我决定理论的研究文献)。

These traits are agnostic to the specific type of work performed, contradicting the idea that you must find the exact right job to be happy.
这些特质与所从事的特定工作类型无关,这与你必须找到一份完全正确的工作才能快乐的想法相矛盾。

See also: Is happiness the secret of success?
又见:幸福是成功的秘诀吗?

The second strike against this advice comes from the anecdotal evidence. If you study the career paths of people who end up loving their work, you’ll find that clearly identified pre-existing passions are rare.
反对这一建议的第二个理由来自轶事证据。如果你研究那些最终热爱自己工作的人的职业道路,你会发现,明确确定的先前存在的激情是罕见的。

Some people do figure out early on what they want to do with their life, but most follow much more complicated paths on which passion emerges slowly over time.
有些人确实很早就知道自己想做什么,但大多数人走的路要复杂得多,随着时间的推移,激情慢慢涌现。

Just because “follow your passion” is bad advice, however, doesn’t mean that you should abandon the goal of feeling passionate about your work. This reality instead emphasizes that the strategies that work are more complicated. Below are three ideas that came up often in my study of how people actually end up loving what they do.
然而,仅仅因为“追随你的激情”是不好的建议,并不意味着你应该放弃对工作充满激情的目标。这种现实反而强调,有效的战略更加复杂。以下是在我的研究中经常出现的三个观点,即人们最终是如何热爱自己的工作的。

See also: Is workplace boredom ‘the new stress?’
另见:职场无聊是“新的压力”吗?

Passion is earned
激情是赢得的

Different people are looking for different things in their work, but in general, if you study people with compelling careers, they enjoy some combination of the following traits: autonomy, respect, competence, creativity, and/or a sense of impact. In other words, if you want to feel passionate about your livelihood, don’t seek the perfect job, instead seek to get more of these traits in the job you already have.
不同的人在他们的工作中寻找不同的东西,但一般来说,如果你研究那些有着令人信服的职业生涯的人,他们会享受以下特质的某种组合:自主性、尊重、能力、创造力和/或影响感。换句话说,如果你想对自己的生活充满激情,就不要去寻找完美的工作,而是要在你已经拥有的工作中获得更多这些特质。

The problem, of course, is that these traits are rare and valuable. Just because you really want a job that allows you to autonomously tackle respected creative projects doesn’t mean that someone will hand it to you.
当然,问题是,这些特征是罕见的和有价值的。仅仅因为你真的想要一份能让你自主处理受人尊敬的创造性项目的工作,并不意味着有人会把它交给你。

These rare and valuable traits require that you have rare and valuable skills to offer in return, and building these skills requires time and deliberate effort. If you’re unfulfilled in your current position, therefore, start by asking how you can become more valuable.
这些稀有而有价值的特质要求你拥有稀有而有价值的技能作为回报,而建立这些技能需要时间和深思熟虑的努力。因此,如果你在目前的职位上没有成就感,那就先问问自己如何才能变得更有价值。

Passion is elusive
激情难以捉摸

Many people develop the rare and valuable skills that can lead to passion, but still end up unhappy in their work. The problem is that the traits that might lead you to love your work are more likely to be useful to you than your organization.
许多人培养出了能激发激情的稀有而宝贵的技能,但最终还是在工作中不开心。问题是,那些可能让你热爱工作的特质对你来说比你所在的组织更有用。

As you become increasingly valuable, for example, your boss might push you toward traditional promotions that come with more pay and more responsibility – as this is what is most useful to your company – whereas you might find more passion by leveraging your value to gain autonomy in your schedule or project selection. Getting good, in other words, is not enough by itself. You have to use your ability wisely.
例如,当你变得越来越有价值时,你的老板可能会把你推向传统的晋升,这种晋升会带来更多的薪水和更多的责任——因为这对你的公司来说是最有用的——而你可能会通过利用你的价值在你的日程安排或项目选择中获得自主权而找到更多的激情。换言之,仅仅做好自己是不够的。你必须明智地运用你的能力。

This pattern is common in the stories of people who end up loving their work: after they develop rare and valuable skills they then use these skills as leverage to take control of their career path, often veering far off the standard trajectory. This act of leverage requires courage, but can return great rewards.
这种模式在那些最终热爱自己工作的人的故事中很常见:在他们发展出稀有而有价值的技能之后,他们就利用这些技能来控制自己的职业道路,往往偏离了标准的轨道。这种杠杆行为需要勇气,但可以回报巨大的回报。

See also: Work skills for the ‘conceptual age’
另见:概念时代的工作技能

Passion is dangerous
激情是危险的

Some argue that “follow your passion” is harmless advice. If it can help even a small number of people realize that they don’t have to settle, what’s the problem?
一些人认为“追随你的激情”是无害的建议。如果它能帮助一小部分人意识到他们不必解决问题,那问题是什么?

I disagree. I’ve watched too many of my peers fall into anxiety and chronic job-hopping due to this flawed advice. The issue is expectations. If you believe that we all have a pre-existing passion, and that matching this to a job will lead to instant workplace bliss, then reality will always pale in comparison.
我不同意。我看到过太多的同龄人因为这个错误的建议而陷入焦虑和长期跳槽。问题是期望。如果你相信我们都有一种先天不足的激情,并且将这种激情与一份工作相匹配会带来瞬间的职场幸福,那么现实总是相形见绌。

Work is hard. Not every day is fun. Building the skills that ultimately lead to a compelling career can take years of effort. If you’re seeking a dream job, you’ll end up disappointed, again and again.
工作很辛苦。不是每一天都有趣。建立技能,最终导致一个引人注目的职业生涯可能需要多年的努力。如果你正在寻找一份理想的工作,你会一次又一次地失望

Don’t set out to discover passion. Instead, set out to develop it. This path might be longer and more complicated than what most upbeat career guides might preach, but it’s a path much more likely to lead you somewhere worth going.
不要去发掘激情。相反,我们应该着手开发它。这条路可能比大多数乐观的职业指导者所宣扬的要长,也要复杂,但这条路更有可能指引你去一个值得去的地方。

Unit 5 Text 4

原文链接:快速阅读四第五单元翻译 | 吃史餐厅

The Surprising Secret to Selling Yourself

There is no shortage of advice out there on how to make a good impression – an impression good enough to land you a new job, score a promotion, or bring in that lucrative sales lead. Practice your pitch. Speak confidently, but not too quickly. Make eye contact. And for the love of Pete, don’t be modest–highlight your accomplishments. After all, a person’s track record of success (or a company’s, for that matter) is the single most important factor in determining whether or not they get hired. Or is it?
在如何给人留下好印象方面不乏建议,好印象足以让你找到一份新工作,获得晋升,或者带来丰厚的销售机会。练习你的音调。说话要自信,但不要太快。眼神交流。看在皮特的份上,不要谦虚——突出你的成就。毕竟,一个人的成功记录(或者公司的成功记录)是决定他们是否被录用的最重要的因素。还是真的?

As it happens, it isn’t. Because when we are deciding who to hire, promote, or do business with, it turns out that we don’t like the Big Thing nearly as much as we like the Next Big Thing. We have a bias – one that operates below our conscious awareness – leading us to prefer the potential for greatness over someone who has already achieved it.
但事实并非如此。因为当我们决定雇用谁、提拔谁或与谁做生意时,结果发现,我们对大事的喜爱程度几乎不如对下一件大事的喜爱程度。我们有一种偏见——一种在我们的意识下运作的偏见——导致我们更倾向于拥有伟大的潜力,而不是一个已经实现了它的人。

A set of ingenious studies conducted by Stanford’s Zakary Tormala and Jayson Jia, and Harvard Business School’s Michael Norton paint a very clear picture of our unconscious preference for potential over actual success.
斯坦福大学的Zakary Tormala和Jayson Jia以及哈佛商学院的Michael Norton进行了一系列独创性的研究,描绘了一幅非常清晰的画面,展示了我们潜意识中对潜力的偏好,而不是对实际成功的偏好。

In one study, they asked participants to play the role of an NBA team manager who had the option of offering a contract to a particular player. To evaluate the player, they were given five years of excellent statistics (points scored, rebounds, assists, etc.) These statistics were described either as ones that the player had actually earned in five years of professional play, or as projections of how he was capable of playing (i.e., his potential) in his first five years.
在一项研究中,他们要求参与者扮演一个NBA球队经理的角色,他可以选择向某个特定球员提供合同。为了评估球员,他们被给予了五年的优秀统计数据(得分、篮板、助攻等)。这些统计数据要么被描述为球员在五年职业生涯中实际获得的数据,要么被描述为他在前五年的能力(即他的潜力)的预测。

Then the “managers” were asked, “What would you pay him in his sixth year?” Those who evaluated the player with potential for greatness said they would pay him nearly a million dollars more in annual salary ($5.25 vs. $4.26 million) than those who evaluated the player with a record of actual greatness. Potential evaluators also believed their player would score more, and would be more likely to make the All-Star team.
然后,“教练”们被问到,“在他第六年你会给他多少钱?”那些评价这位有潜力的球员的人说,他们给他的年薪会比那些评价这位有实际伟大记录的球员高出近100万美元(525万美元对426万美元)。潜在的评估者也相信他们的球员得分会更高,更有可能进入全明星队。

Tormala, Jia, and Norton found the same pattern when they looked at evaluations of job candidates. In this case, they compared perceptions of someone with two years of relevant experience who scored highly on a test of leadership achievement, versus someone with no relevant experience who scored highly on a test of leadership potential. (Both candidates had equally impressive backgrounds in every other way). Evaluators believed the candidate with leadership potential would be more successful at the new company than the candidate with a proven record of leadership ability. (Incidentally, if you ask the evaluators to tell you whose resume is more impressive, they agree that it’s the one with experience. They still prefer the other guy anyway.)
托玛拉、贾和诺顿在研究求职者的评估时发现了同样的模式。在这种情况下,他们比较了有两年相关经验的人在领导力成就测试中得分较高,而没有相关经验的人在领导力潜力测试中得分较高(两位候选人在其他方面都有同样令人印象深刻的背景)。评估人员认为,有领导潜力的候选人在新公司会比有领导能力的候选人更成功(顺便说一句,如果你让评估者告诉你谁的简历更令人印象深刻,他们会同意这是一份有经验的简历。他们还是更喜欢另一个人。)

In other studies, the researchers showed how we prefer artwork and artists with potential to win awards over those that actually have, and prefer restaurants and chefs with the potential to be the next big thing in dining over the ones who have already made their name. In a particularly clever study, they compared two versions of Facebook ads for a real stand-up comedian. In the first version, critics said “he is the next big thing” and “everybody’s talking about him.” In the second version, critics said he “could be the next big thing,” and that “in a year, everybody could be talking about him.” The ad that focused on his potential got significantly more clicks and likes.
在其他研究中,研究人员表明,我们更喜欢有潜力获奖的艺术品和艺术家,而不是那些真正获奖的人,更喜欢有潜力成为餐饮业下一个大人物的餐馆和厨师,而不是那些已经成名的餐馆和厨师。在一项特别聪明的研究中,他们比较了两个版本的Facebook广告,寻找一个真正的喜剧演员。在第一个版本中,评论家们说“他是下一个大人物”和“每个人都在谈论他”。在第二个版本中,评论家们说他“可能是下一个大人物”,“一年后,每个人都在谈论他。”这则聚焦于他潜力的广告获得了更多的点击和喜欢。

And this is not, incidentally, a pro-youth bias in disguise. It’s true that the person with potential, rather than a proven record, is sometimes also the younger candidate–but the researchers were careful to control for age in their studies and found that it wasn’t a factor.
顺便说一句,这不是变相的亲青年偏见。诚然,有潜力的人,而不是被证实的记录,有时也是年轻的候选人-但研究人员在他们的研究中小心地控制了年龄,发现这不是一个因素。
So, since preferring potential over a proven record is both risky and inherently irrational, why do we do it? According to these findings, the potential for success, as opposed to actual success, is more interesting because it is less certain. When human brains come across uncertainty, they tend to pay attention to information more because they want to figure it out, which leads to longer and more in-depth processing. High-potential candidates make us think harder than proven ones do. So long as the information available about the high-potential candidate is favorable, all this extra processing can lead (unconsciously) to an overall more positive view of the candidate (or company). (That part about the information available being favorable is important. In another study, when the candidate was described as having great potential, but there was little evidence to back that up, people liked him far less than the proven achiever.)
那么,既然偏好潜力而非已证实的记录既有风险又有内在的非理性,我们为什么要这么做呢?根据这些发现,与实际成功相比,成功的潜力更有趣,因为它不太确定。当人类大脑遇到不确定性时,往往会更多地关注信息,因为他们想弄清楚它,这会导致更长更深入的处理。高潜力的候选人让我们比被证明的候选人更难思考。只要有关高潜力候选人的信息是有利的,所有这些额外的处理可以(无意识地)导致对候选人(或公司)的总体更积极的看法(关于可获得的有利信息这一部分很重要。在另一项研究中,当候选人被描述为具有巨大潜力,但几乎没有证据支持这一点时,人们对他的喜爱远远低于公认的成就者。)

All this suggests that you need a very different approach to selling yourself than the one you intuitively take, because your intuitions are probably wrong. People are much more impressed, whether they realize it or not, by your potential than by your track record. It would be wise to start focusing your pitch on your future, as an individual or as a company, rather than on your past – even if that past is very impressive indeed. It’s what you could be that makes people sit up and take notice – learn to use the power of potential to your advantage.
所有这一切都表明,你需要一个非常不同的方法来推销自己,而不是你的直觉,因为你的直觉可能是错误的。不管人们意识到与否,人们对你的潜力的印象要比你的履历深刻得多。明智的做法是,开始把你的演讲重点放在你的未来,无论是作为一个个人还是作为一个公司,而不是你的过去——即使你的过去确实令人印象深刻。你能成为什么样的人才能让人们注意到你——学会利用你的潜能。

Unit 5 Text 5

原文链接:快速阅读四第五单元翻译 | 吃史餐厅

Blogs Review: The Youth Unemployment Crisis

A) What’s at stake: The global youth unemployment rate, which was already high before the start of the Great Recession, has reached skyrocketing levels in the past two years. While youth unemployment rates have increased in almost all countries, there has been wide divergence in the size of this increase – often reflecting the country-specific aspects of the transition from school to work. For most, if not all, a serious discussion about the potential “scarring effects” induced by such a situation appears, however, warranted if we want to avoid having one generation permanently bear the burden of this crisis.
A) 关键是:全球青年失业率在大萧条开始前就已经很高了,但在过去两年里已经达到了飞涨的水平。尽管几乎所有国家的青年失业率都有所上升,但这种上升的幅度却存在很大差异,这往往反映了从学校向工作过渡的具体国家方面。然而,对于大多数人(如果不是所有人的话),如果我们想避免让一代人永久地承担这场危机的重担,就有必要认真讨论这种情况可能造成的“疤痕效应”。

The youth unemployment bomb
B) Peter Coy writes in a special Business Week report that the youth unemployment bomb is global. In Tunisia, the young people who helped bring down a dictator are called the hittistes – French - Arabic slang for those who lean against the wall. Their counterparts in Egypt are the shabab atileen, unemployed youths. In Britain, they are NEETs – “not in education, employment, or training.” In Japan, they are freeters: an amalgam of the English word freelance and the German word Arbeiter, or worker. Spaniards call them mileuristas, meaning they earn no more than 1,000 euros a month. In the U.S., they’re “boomerang” kids who move back home after college because they can’t find work.
青年失业炸弹
B) 彼得·科伊在《商业周刊》的一篇特别报道中写道,青年失业问题是全球性的。在突尼斯,帮助推翻独裁者的年轻人被称为希特勒——法语-阿拉伯语俚语,意为靠墙的人。他们在埃及的对手是青年党,失业青年。在英国,他们是“啃老族”——“不在教育、就业或培训领域。”在日本,他们是“自由主义者”:英语单词freelate和德语单词Arbeiter或worker的混合体。西班牙人叫他们mileuristas,意思是他们每月的收入不超过1000欧元。在美国,他们是“自食其果”的孩子,大学毕业后因为找不到工作而搬回家。

C) The International Labor Organization writes in its Global Employment Trends report that in 2011, 74.8 million youth aged 15-24 were unemployed, an increase of more than 4 million since 2007. The global youth unemployment rate, at 12.7 per cent, remains a full percentage point higher than the pre-crisis level. Globally, young people are nearly three times as likely as adults to be unemployed. In addition, an estimated 6.4 million young people have given up hope of finding a job and have dropped out of the labor market altogether.
C) 国际劳工组织(International Labor Organization)在其《全球就业趋势》(Global Employment Trends)报告中写道,2011年,15-24岁的青年失业人数为7480万,比2007年增加了400多万。全球青年失业率为12.7%,仍比危机前高出整整一个百分点。在全球范围内,年轻人失业的可能性几乎是成年人的三倍。此外,估计有640万年轻人放弃了找工作的希望,完全退出了劳动力市场。

D) Zero Hedge writes that the Euro-zone youth unemployment rate is back over 22% for the first time since September 1994. David Bell and David Blanchflower point in a recent IZA paper that while youth unemployment rates have increased in almost all countries, there has been wide divergence in the size of this increase. Particularly large increases have occurred in countries that have suffered house price declines crises such as Spain, Latvia, Lithuania and Ireland. In contrast, youth unemployment has remained relatively low in Austria, Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands.
D) Zero Hedge写道,欧元区青年失业率自1994年9月以来首次回升至22%以上。David Bell和David Blanchflower在最近的IZA论文中指出,尽管几乎所有国家的青年失业率都有所上升,但这一增长的规模存在很大分歧。尤其是在遭受房价下跌危机的国家,如西班牙、拉脱维亚、立陶宛和爱尔兰,房价涨幅特别大。相比之下,奥地利、丹麦、德国和荷兰的青年失业率相对较低。

From bad to worse
E) Hanan Morsy writes in a recent issue of F&D (HT Marco Annunziata) that since the global crisis began in 2008, young people have suffered a much sharper rise in joblessness than older workers. A recent OECD paper illustrates that this pattern is not unusual, as youth unemployment tends to be more responsive to the cycle than adult unemployment.
每况愈下
E) Hanan Morsy在最近一期F&D杂志(HT Marco Annunziata)上写道,自2008年全球危机爆发以来,年轻人的失业率比老年人高出许多。经合组织(OECD)最近的一篇论文表明,这种模式并不罕见,因为青年失业率往往比成年人失业率对周期的反应更为敏感。

F) Marco Annunziata writes in VoxEU that the rise in youth unemployment looks largely like a reversion to the mean. The speed at which young people have been thrown out of the labor market is frightening. But equally frightening is how long Europe has lived with high youth unemployment. Implausible as it sounds, Italian voters have put up with an average youth unemployment rate of 30% for the last 40 years; Spanish voters with a rate of 32%. During the impressive years of Spanish growth, the youth unemployment rate averaged 28%; it was below 20% for just three years, with a “best performance” of 18% in 2006.
F) Marco Annunziata在《VoxEU》中写道,年轻人失业率的上升在很大程度上看起来像是向平均水平的回归。年轻人被赶出劳动力市场的速度令人恐惧。但同样可怕的是,欧洲年轻人失业率居高不下的情况持续了多久。尽管听起来难以置信,但意大利选民在过去40年里忍受了平均30%的青年失业率;西班牙选民的支持率为32%。在西班牙令人印象深刻的经济增长时期,青年失业率平均为28%;仅仅三年时间,这一比例就低于20%,2006年的“最佳表现”为18%。

The scarring effects on a generation
G) Business Week writes that when jobs do come back, employers might choose to reach past today’s unemployed and pick from the next crop of fresh-faced grads. Starting one’s career during a recession can have long-term negative consequences. Lisa B. Kahn, an economist at the Yale School of Management, estimates that for white, male college students in the U.S., a 1 percentage point increase in the unemployment rate at the time of graduation causes an initial wage loss of 6 percent to 7 percent. In a study that uses longitudinal data from Social Security records covering up to 30 years of earnings, Till von Wachter and al. (2009) present the first national estimates of the long-term cost of job displacements during the 1982 recession. They find large immediate losses in annual earnings of 30%. After 15 to 20 years, these losses are still 20% and thus represent a significant setback in workers’ lifetime resources.
伤疤对一代人的影响
G) 《商业周刊》写道,当工作真的回来时,雇主可能会选择接触过去的失业者,从下一批新面孔的毕业生中挑选。在经济衰退期间开始职业生涯会产生长期的负面影响。丽莎B。耶鲁大学管理学院经济学家卡恩估计,对于美国的白人男性大学生来说,毕业时失业率上升1个百分点,会导致最初的工资损失6%至7%。在一项研究中,使用了来自社会保障记录的纵向数据,涵盖了长达30年的收入,直到von Wachter和al.(2009年)提出了1982年经济衰退期间,第一次全国性的失业长期成本估计。他们发现,30%的年收益会带来巨大的直接损失。在15到20年之后,这些损失仍然是20%,因此代表着工人终生资源的重大挫折。

H) Steven Hill writes that studies of scars left by youth unemployment in France do not show the persistence generally found in the UK and many other countries. The author refers to a study by Mathilde Gaini, Aude Leduc and Augustin Vicard that uses the French labor force surveys for the cohorts entering the labor market between 1982 and 2009. The authors find that “unlucky” young people completing their studies during a recession have lower employment rates, are more often part-time and temporary workers, but catch-up with “lucky” one within 3 years.
H) 史蒂文·希尔写道,对法国青年失业留下的伤疤的研究并没有显示出英国和其他许多国家普遍存在的持续性。作者引用了Mathilde Gaini、Aude Leduc和Augustin Vicard的一项研究,该研究使用了法国1982年至2009年间对进入劳动力市场的人群进行的劳动力调查。作者发现,在经济衰退期间完成学业的“不幸”年轻人的就业率较低,更多的是兼职和临时工,但3年内赶上“幸运儿”。

I) Alan Beattie writes that half of young Spaniards are not on the dole. The unemployment rate doesn’t measure the percentage of people of a given age–in this case 15-24–who want a job and can’t get one. It measures those people as a percentage of the labor force–people either in employment or searching for a job–and ignores all those in education or training. In Spain that’s quite a big difference: recession or no, a lot of Spaniards go to college and often take a long time to get round to graduating. A better measure of the failure to create jobs is the percentage of young people aged 15-24 that are not in employment, education or training (NEETs). According to that measure Spain is towards the top, but only a few percentage points above the EU average and actually below the OECD average. Greece shows a similar pattern.
I) 艾伦·比蒂写道,一半的西班牙年轻人没有领取救济金。失业率并不能衡量某一特定年龄段(本例中为15-24岁)想要工作却找不到工作的人的百分比。它将这些人作为劳动力的一个百分比来衡量——就业或找工作的人——而忽略了所有接受教育或培训的人。在西班牙,这是一个很大的区别:不管经济衰退与否,很多西班牙人上大学,往往要花很长时间才能毕业。衡量未能创造就业机会的一个更好的标准是15-24岁的年轻人中没有就业、没有接受教育或培训的比例。根据这一衡量标准,西班牙已接近榜首,但只比欧盟平均水平高出几个百分点,实际上低于经合组织的平均水平。希腊也表现出类似的模式。

German exceptionalism and emigration as a safety valve
J) Marco Annunziata writes that Germany’s youth also have a higher unemployment rate than older generations, but their rate is just over 8%. Germany’s better coordination between the school system and industry, including via its apprenticeship programmes, pays off.
德国例外论与移民安全阀
J) Marco Annunziata写道,德国年轻人的失业率也高于老一辈,但他们的失业率仅略高于8%。德国在学校系统和工业之间更好的协调,包括通过其学徒计划,是值得的。

K) Gerrit Wiesmann notes in the FT that youth unemployment in Germany has hovered two to three points above total unemployment, while in France or Spain it has regularly run at two or three times the jobless rate. The decades-old commitment of bosses and teenagers to the German vocational training system is widely regarded as the secret behind the country’s relatively low youth unemployment rate. The German apprenticeship programme–Duales Ausbildungs system, or dual training system (the name refers to its mix of book learning and hands-on experience)–which dates back to an overhaul of vocational training in 1969 but has roots in old guild system has led the US, India and other countries to study it as a possible model for their own policies. But it has proved difficult to copy.
K) Gerrit Wiesmann在英国《金融时报》上指出,德国的青年失业率比总失业率高出2到3个百分点,而在法国或西班牙,青年失业率通常是失业率的2到3倍。老板和青少年对德国职业培训体系几十年的承诺被广泛认为是德国相对较低的青年失业率背后的秘密。德国学徒制计划(Duales ausbuldungs system,或dual training system,其名称是指其书本学习和实践经验的结合)可以追溯到1969年对职业培训的全面改革,但其根源是美国领导的旧行会制度,印度和其他国家将其作为研究本国政策的可能模式。但事实证明很难复制。

L) Jamie Smyth writes that emigration is back with a vengeance in Ireland. Last year 76,400 people emigrated, bringing the number of people who have left the country since the Irish recession began to 250,000. Peter Wise writes that with an estimated 120,000-150,000 people leaving a country of 10m last year, emigration has now surged back to the peak levels of the 1960s and 1970s in Portugal, when waves of impoverished workers departed for northern Europe and the Americas. The difference this time is that, unlike the largely uneducated workforce that left then, many of today’s migrants are young graduates with university degrees.
L) 杰米·斯迈思写道,移民潮在爱尔兰卷土重来。去年有76400人移民,使爱尔兰经济衰退开始以来离开该国的人数达到250000人。彼得·怀斯写道,去年估计有120000-150000人离开一个1000万人口的国家,现在葡萄牙的移民人数已经激增到1960年代和1970年代的峰值水平,当一批批贫困工人离开欧洲北部和美洲时。这次的区别在于,与当时大部分没有受过教育的劳动力不同的是,如今的许多移民都是拥有大学学位的年轻毕业生。

自测阅读 Test 1-4 Text 1

原文链接:大学英语四自测阅读翻译 | 吃史餐厅

The interview is an important event in the job-hunting process because the 20 or 30 minutes you spend with the interviewer may decide whether or not you get the particular job you want. Therefore it is important to remember that your purpose during the interview may differ from that of the potential employer. You want to make yourself stand out as a whole person who has personal strengths and should be considered the right person for the job. It is encouraging to know that the interviewer’s task is not to embarrass you but to hire the right person for the job.
面试在求职过程中是一个重要的事件,因为你和面试官在一起的20或30分钟可能会决定你是否能得到你想要的工作。因此,记住你在面试时的目的可能和潜在雇主的不同是很重要的。你想让自己作为一个拥有个人优势的人脱颖而出,并且被认为是这份工作的合适人选。令人鼓舞的是,面试官的任务不是让你难堪,而是要雇用适合这份工作的人。

Remember job-hunting is very competitive. Anything you can do to improve your interview techniques will be to your advantage. The following suggestions may help you land the most important job.
记住,求职竞争非常激烈。任何可以提高面试技巧的事情都会对你有利。以下建议可能会帮助你找到最重要的工作。

Your goal in this interview is to make sure your good points get across. The interviewer won’t know them unless you point them out so try to do this in a factual and sincere manner.
在这次面试中 , 你的目标是确保你的观点被接受。面试官不会了解这些观点 , 除非你指出来 , 所以试着以真实和真诚的方式去表达。

Don’t say anything bad about your former employers. If you have been fired from a job and the interview asks about it be honest.
不要说你以前雇主的坏话。如果你被解雇了 , 面试官会问你是否诚实。

Show the interviewer that you are interested in the company by asking questions. Ask about responsibilities working conditions promotion opportunities and benefits of the job you are interviewing for.
通过提出问题向面试官表明你对公司感兴趣。询问责任、工作条件、晋升机会和应聘工作的好处。

If at some point you decide the interview is not going well do not let your discouragement show. You have nothing to lose by continuing a show of confidence and you many have much to gain. It may be real or it may be a test to see how you react to adverse conditions.
如果在某个时候你觉得面试不太顺利,不要表现出你的沮丧。继续展现自信不会有什么损失,你们会收获很多。它可能是真实的,也可能是一个测试,看看你如何应对不利条件。

Some interviewers may bring up salary early in the interview. At this time you may indicate that you are more interested in a job where you can prove yourself than a specific salary. This politely passes the question back to the interviewer. If possible you should negotiate for salary after you have been offered a job and have completed the paperwork.
有些面试官可能会在面试中提前提到薪水问题。在这种情况下,你可能会表示你更感兴趣的是一份能证明你自己的工作,而不是一份具体的薪水。这样可以礼貌地把问题传回面试官。如果可能的话 , 在你得到一份工作并完成了文书工作之后 , 你应该就工资问题进行谈判。(即拿到offer、签了合同,立马谈工资问题)

自测阅读 Test 1-4 Text 2

原文链接:大学英语四自测阅读翻译 | 吃史餐厅

Like many other small boys, I was fascinated by cars, not least because my oldest brother was a bit of a car guy and subscribed to cool magazines like Car and Driver and Motor Trend. Every so often, one of those magazines would run an article on the “Car of the Future”. They featured unconventional styling and things like small nuclear reactors as power sources. Yet, frankly, my car doesn’t do anything that my brother’s Studebaker didn’t do. It goes, it stops, it burns gasoline, it plays music. I still have to steer it, and it still runs into things if I don’t steer it carefully.
像许多其他的小男孩一样 , 我对汽车着迷 , 不仅仅是因为我的大哥是个车迷 , 他订阅了一些很酷的杂志 , 比如《汽车与司机》和《汽车趋势》。 这些杂志中的一份经常会刊登一篇关于 “未来之车” 的文章。 它们以非常规的造型和小型核反应堆作为动力来源。 坦白说 , 我的车不会做我哥哥的斯图贝克没做过的事。 它会走,会停,需要燃烧汽油,可以播放音乐。我仍然要操纵它,如果我不小心驾驶,它还是会撞上东西。

But guess what? All of these things are subject to change in the not-so-distant future. It will still go and stop, but it may not burn gasoline, I may not have to steer it, and it may be a lot better at not running into things.
但你猜怎么着?在不远的将来,所有这些都可能发生改变。它仍然会走,会停,但它可能不需要燃烧汽油,我可能不需要驾驶它,而且它在不撞到东西方面可能要好得多。

Airbags aren’t the be-all and end-all in safety. In fact, considering the recent news about people occasionally being killed by their airbags in low-speed collisions (碰撞),they obviously still need some development. But they aren’t going away, and in fact, you can expect to see cars appearing with additional, side-impact airbags, something some European car manufacturers already offer.
安全气囊并不是万能的。事实上,考虑到最近关于人们偶尔会在低速碰撞中被安全气囊撞死的新闻,这些技术显然还需要进一步发展。但它们并没有消失,事实上,你可以期待看到有附加的侧面碰撞安全气囊出现的汽车,一些欧洲汽车制造商已经提供了。

Better than systems to minimize (使减少到最低限度) injury in the event of an accident,however, are systems that minimize the likelihood of an accident happening in the first place. Future cars may be able to eliminate many of the major causes of accidents, including drunk-driving,tailgating (与前车距离过近) and sleepiness. Cars could be equipped with sensors that can detect alcohol in a driver’s system and prevent the car from being started, for example. Many accidents are caused by people following the car in front too closely. As early as next year, you’ll be able to buy cars with radar-equipped control systems. If the radar determines you’re closing too quickly with the car in front, it will ease up on the throttle (油门). For city streets, expect other radar devices that will give advance warning that the car in front of you has slowed abruptly (突然地) and you should step on the brakes-or that may even brake for you.
然而 , 最小化事故发生可能性的系统要比在事故发生时最小化伤害的系统好。 未来的汽车可能能够消除许多主要的事故原因 , 包括酒后驾车、尾随和嗜睡。 例如 , 汽车可以配备传感器 , 可以检测驾驶员系统中的酒精含量 , 防止汽车起动。 许多事故是由人们紧跟在前面的汽车后面造成的。 最早在明年 , 你就能买到装有雷达控制系统的汽车。 如果雷达发现你的车开得太快 , 油门就会松开。在城市街道上,其他雷达设备会提前警告你前面的车突然减速,你应该踩刹车,或者甚至会为你刹车。

Will cars eventually be able to drive themselves? There’s no reason to think it won’t be technically possible, and Mercedes is working on a system that can brake, accelerate and steer a vehicle down a highway on its own. Nobody really expects people to give up all control to their cars, but such systems could be used as failsafe systems to keep cars on the road and bring them safely to a stop even if the driver suddenly became disabled.
汽车最终能自动驾驶吗?没有理由认为这在技术上是不可能实现的,奔驰正在研发一种能够自动刹车、加速和驾驶的系统。没有人真正希望人们放弃对汽车的所有控制,但这样的系统可以作为故障安全系统,使汽车保持在道路上,并使他们安全停车,即使司机突然变得残疾。

自测阅读 Test 5-8 Text 1

原文链接:大学英语四自测阅读翻译 | 吃史餐厅

I study political violence for a living., yet I, too, am shaken and unsure how to react. As I sit here today in my office, only a few miles from the still-burning Pentagon, images of the slaughter in my native New York dominate my thoughts. It makes it hard to concentrate on work, and it makes the everyday things seem so trivial. Only now, twenty-four hours after the tragedy began to unfold, have I begun to realize how this has affected me on so many levels.
我以研究政治暴力为生。然而,我也很震惊,不知道该如何反应。今天,当我坐在我的办公室里,距离仍在燃烧的五角大楼只有几英里的时候,我的脑海里充斥着发生在我的家乡纽约的屠杀画面。它让人很难集中精力工作,让日常的事情看起来如此琐碎。直到现在,在悲剧开始发生24小时后,我才开始意识到这件事对我的影响有多么深远。

As an American, I feel threatened and confused, where only yesterday I felt proud and invincible. As a citizen of the global community, I have been shocked into the reality of the reach of global terrorism. As a human being, I am appalled at the cruelty and inhumanity of these acts of terrorism. As someone who hopes to understand unspeakable acts, I am at a loss to understand this one, perhaps because it hits so close to home.
作为一个美国人,我感到威胁和困惑,而就在昨天,我还感到自豪和不可战胜。作为国际社会的一名公民,我对全球恐怖主义蔓延的现实感到震惊。作为一个人,我对这些恐怖主义行为的残忍和不人道感到震惊。作为一个希望理解这些难以形容的行为的人,我无法理解这一次,也许是因为它离家太近了。

I know only these things: Someone, for some reason, has decided to strike at the United States. Despite the many people killed, the intended target of this attack was American power. The goal was to strike a paralyzing fear into the hearts and minds of all citizens of the U.S., and perhaps its allies as well. Thus, we—all of us— are the real targets of this attack. This explains why many of us, even those of us who were not near the attacks, or who knew no one affected by them, felt this tragedy so deeply.
我只知道这些事:有人,出于某种原因,决定袭击美国。尽管有许多人丧生,这次袭击的预定目标是美国的力量。这样做的目的是让所有美国公民,甚至是美国的盟友,在他们的内心和思想中都产生一种麻痹性的恐惧。因此,我们——我们所有人——都是这次袭击的真正目标。这就解释了为什么我们中的许多人,甚至我们中那些没有接近袭击,或不知道谁受到影响的人,深深感受到这场悲剧。

Yet we must not succumb to fear, for if we do the terrorists have won. Surely our lives will be different now. We may be more aware, more inconvenienced, more insecure. But we must learn to deal with this tragedy and to move on, to live our lives as fully and as entirely as before. I came to my office today, even though classes here have been cancelled, to live my life as normally as possible, for to do so in the face of yesterday ’s terrorist attacks is itself an act of defiance.
然而,我们绝不能屈服于恐惧,因为如果我们屈服,恐怖分子就赢了。我们现在的生活肯定会有所不同。我们可能会更清醒,更不方便,更不安全。但我们必须学会处理这一悲剧,继续前进,像以前一样充实、完整地生活。我今天来到我的办公室,尽管这里的课程已经取消了,但我要尽可能过正常的生活,因为面对昨天的恐怖袭击,我这样做本身就是一种蔑视。

自测阅读 Test 5-8 Text 2

原文链接:大学英语四自测阅读翻译 | 吃史餐厅

Gray clouds move as low as smoke over the treetops at Lolo Pass. The ground is white. The day is June 10. It has been snowing for the past four days in the Bitterroot Mountains. Wayne Fairchild is getting worried about our trek over the Lolo Trail—95 miles from Lolo Montana to Weippe in Idaho, across some of the roughest country in the West. Lewis and Clark were nearly defeated 200 years ago by snowstorms on the Lolo. Today Fairchild is nervously checking the weather reports. He has agreed to take me across the toughest, middle section of the trail—“but with this weather? ’’ When Lewis climbed atop Lemhi Pass, 140 miles south of Missoula, on Aug. 12, 1805, he was astonished by what was in front of him: “immense ranges of high mountains still to the West of us with their tops partially covered with snow” Nobody in what was then the US knew the Rocky Mountains existed, with peaks twice as high as anything in the Appalachians back East. Lewis and Clark weren’t merely off the map; they were traveling outside the American imagination.
白云像烟雾一样在洛洛帕斯的树梢上移动。 地面是白色的。 今天是 6 月 10 日,过去四天比特罗山一直在下雪。韦恩·费尔奇尔德(Wayne Fairchild)开始担心我们徒步穿越洛洛小径(Lolo Trail)——从洛洛蒙大拿州(Lolo Montana)到爱达荷州(Idaho)的韦佩(Weippe)95英里,穿越西部一些最崎岖的国家。 200 年前 , 刘易斯和克拉克差点被洛罗河上的暴风雪打败。今天费尔柴尔德紧张地查看天气预报。 他同意带我穿过这条小路中最艰难的一段——“但是在这种天气下呢?”,1805年8月12日,当刘易斯爬上米苏拉以南140英里的莱米山口(Lemhi Pass)山顶时,他对眼前的景象感到惊讶:“西边仍有大片的高山 , 山顶部分覆盖着雪。”当时的美国没有人知道落基山脉的存在 , 那里的山峰是东部阿巴拉契亚山脉的两倍。 刘易斯和克拉克不仅不在地图上 , 他们的旅行超出了美国人的想象。

Today their pathway through those mountains holds more attraction than any other ground over which they traveled, for its raw wilderness is a testimony to the character of two cultures: the explorers who braved its hardships and the Native-Americans who prize and conserve the path as a sacred gift. It remains today in virtually the same condition as when Lewis and Clark walked it.
今天,他们穿越这些山脉的道路比他们所走过的任何其他地方都更具吸引力,因为它原始的荒野证明了两种文化的特征:一种是敢于冒险的探险家,另一种是珍视和保护这条道路作为神圣礼物的美洲土著人。今天,它实际上仍然保持着刘易斯和克拉克行走时的状态。

The Lolo is passable only from July to mid-September. Our luck is holding with the weather, although the snow seeps getting deeper. As we climb to Indian Post office, the highest point on the trail at 7,033 ft., the drifts are 15 ft, and up. We have covered 12 miles in soft snow, and we barely have enough energy to make dinner. After a meal of chicken and couscous, I sit on a rock on top of the ridge. There is no light visible in any direction, not even another campfire. For four days we do not see another human being. We are isolated in a way that mixes fear with joy. In our imagination we have finally caught up with Lewis and Clark.
洛洛只能从7月到9月中旬通行。尽管雪越来越深, 但我们的运气与天气息息相关。当我们爬到印地安邮局时,足迹的最高点是 7033 英尺 , 漂移的高度是 15 英尺,而且还在上升。我们在松软的雪地里走了12英里,几乎没有足够的精力做饭。吃完鸡肉和粗麦粉,我坐在山脊上的一块石头上。任何方向都看不见光,甚至连另一个营火也看不见。整整四天我们都没有看到其他人。我们在某种程度上被孤立,恐惧与喜悦交织在一起。 在我们的想象中我们终于赶上了刘易斯和克拉克。